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Definition 2022


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Translingual

Stroke order

Han character

(radical 182 風+0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI) or 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition ⿵𠘨)

  1. Kangxi radical #182, (wind).

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

Chinese

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*b·ruːm
*b·uːm
*pʰomʔ
*pʰoms, *bum
*bom
*bom, *boms
*bom, *boms
*bomʔ
*bloms, *bum
*boːŋ, *bum
*plum, *plums
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plums
*blum
*blum
*bums

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *plum, *plums) : phonetic  (OC *bom) + semantic  (insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲)). The stroke inside the enclosure has merged with the , so compound is graphically  + ; compare similar development in (from ).

Etymology

Unknown. Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate, and pronunciation 3 appears to be cognate as well. The Old Chinese form for "wind" was *prəm, which is thought to be related to Proto-Tai *C̬.lɯmᴬ (wind), Korean 바람 (baram, wind) and Tibetan རླུང (rlung, wind). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean cognate. Compare Chinese 風流, 風騷 - Korean 바람둥이 (baramdung-i).

Cognate with:

  • 飛廉 (“wind god”)
  • 蜚蠊 (“cockroach”) (note the preservation of the -r- infix in Old Chinese through disyllabification, also (OC *b·ruːm), (OC *b·uːm))
  • (OC *plum, “mad, insane”)
  • (OC *plums, “to mock, to advise”)
  • (OC *bom, *boms, “sail”)

The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Pronunciation 1



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /foŋ/
Nanjing /fən³¹/
Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /fan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
/huaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
/huaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/piuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/piuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puwŋ/
Li
Rong
/piuŋ/
Wang
Li
/pĭuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fēng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*prəm/
English wind (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 2921
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*plum/

Definitions

  1. wind
  2. air; atmosphere
  3. general mood; custom
  4. demeanour
    • /    fēngfàn   manner
    • /    fēng   elegance
  5. cultivation; moralisation
    • /    fēngjiào   cultivation
  6. style; manner
    • /    fēng   style
    • /    wénfēng   writing style
  7. conduct; discipline
    • /    fēnghuì   favour
    • /    fēng   standard of behaviour
  8. power
    • /    fēngsǎo   to sweep
  9. news; information
    • /    fēngshēng   news
    • /    fēngxùn   news
    • 而動 / 而动   wénfēngérdòng   to act at once on hearing the news
  10. love; affection; to become sexually attracted; to copulate
    • /    fēngyuè   romance
    • /    fēngqíng   amorous feelings
    • 馬牛不相及 / 马牛不相及   fēngmǎniúbùxiàngjí   irrelevant
    • ,臣妾逋逃,常刑!無敢寇攘,垣牆,臣妾,常刑 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      ,臣妾逋逃,常刑!无敢寇攘,垣墙,臣妾,常刑 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: The Book of Documents, circa 7th – 4th centuries BCE
      Mǎ niú qí fēng, chénqiè būtáo, wù gǎn yuè zhú, zhī fù zhī, wǒ shāng lài rǔ. Nǎi yuè zhú bù fù, rǔ zé yǒu chángxíng! Wúgǎn kòurǎng, yú yuánqiáng, qiè mǎ niú, yòu chénqiè, rǔ zé yǒu chángxíng! [Pinyin]
      When the horses or cattle are seeking one another, or when your followers, male or female, abscond, presume not to leave the ranks to pursue them. But let them be carefully returned. I will reward you (among the people) who return them according to their value. But if you leave your places to pursue them, or if you who find them do not restore them, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments. And let none of you presume to commit any robbery or detain any creature that comes in your way, to jump over enclosures and walls to steal (people's) horses or oxen, or to decoy away their servants or female attendants. If you do so, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments.
  11. dissolute; promiscuous
  12. ungrounded; baseless
    • /    fēngyán   rumour
    • /    fēngyáo   ballad song
  13. Alternative form of (fēng, “mad; insane”).
    • /    fēng   spirited
    • /    fēngbìng   psychiatric illness
  14. (TCM) One of the causes of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
  15. epilepsy
    • /    fēngchī   insanity
    • /    fēngxuàn   epilepsy
  16. A surname. Feng; Fung

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic ():

Pronunciation 2



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/piuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/piuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puwŋH/
Li
Rong
/piuŋH/
Wang
Li
/pĭuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fèng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fèng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuwngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*prəm-s/
English blow; criticize

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 2929
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*plums/
Notes

Definitions

  1. to blow; to fan
  2. to influence; to reform a misguided person through persuasion
    • /    fēngmín   to cultivate the masses

Compounds

Pronunciation 3


Definitions

  1. Alternative form of (fěng, “to mock; to ridicule; to satire”).
  2. Alternative form of (fěng, “to advise in mild tone”).
    • /    fēngquàn   to advise
    • /    fēng   to advise in mild tone

Japanese

Kanji

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
かぜ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana かぜ, romaji kaze)

  1. a movement of air; a wind
  2. airs
  3. style

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
ふう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (pjuwng, wind).

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana ふう, romaji )

  1. style

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
ふり
Grade: 2
Irregular

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 振る (furu, to swing).

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

(hiragana ふり, romaji furi)

  1. swing

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 1 2 3 4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean

Hanja

(pung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: pung, McCune-Reischauer: p'ung, Yale: phung)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

Han character

(phong)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.