Definify.com

Definition 2022


U+548C, 和
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-548C

[U+548B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+548D]
See also: , , and

Translingual

Stroke order

Han character

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹木口 (HDR), four-corner 26900, composition)

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 185, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 404, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 602, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+548C

Chinese

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰoːl, *kʰoːls
*kʰoːl
*kʰoːl
*kʰoːl
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl, *ɡoːls
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl, *ɡoːls
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːls

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːl, *ɡoːls) : phonetic  (OC *ɡoːl) + semantic . Ancient simplification of (OC *ɡoːl).

Pronunciation 1



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwa/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑ/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huó
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwa ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˤoj/
English harmonious

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4932
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːl/

Definitions

  1. peaceful; harmonious
    •    píng   peace, peaceful
  2. gentle; kind
  3. warm; temperate
  4. sum; total
    •    Wǔ jiā sì de shì jiǔ.   The sum of 5 and 4 is 9.
  5. to make peace; to become reconciled
  6. (chess) to tie
  7. (music) An ancient mouth organ similar to the sheng, but smaller; no longer used.
  8. Japanese
    •       kimono, Japanese traditional clothing
  9. A surname. He

Compounds

Pronunciation 2


Definitions

  1. and
          me and you
  2. with
See also
Dialectal synonyms of (“and”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou 同埋
Hong Kong 同埋
Taishan 同埋
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Quanzhou
Xiamen
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Malaysia
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Pronunciation 3



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwaH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑH/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwaH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˤoj-s/
English tune (instruments); respond in singing

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4937
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːls/

Definitions

  1. to make sounds in concert with; to echo
          to second, to echo
       chàng   antiphon, sung reply
    /    yìng   to echo, to correspond
       chóu   to respond to a poem with a poem

Compounds

Pronunciation 4


Definitions

  1. to stir; to mix
    /    jiǎohuo   to stir, to mix
    /    huò miàn   to knead dough
       hùnhuò   mixture, amalgame
       róuhuò/hé   to knead

Compounds

Pronunciation 5


Definitions

  1. to have a winning hand (at mahjong etc)
       pái   to win in mahjong

Compounds

Pronunciation 6


Definitions

  1. warm
       nuǎnhuo   warm
    /    wēnhuo   warm, lukewarm

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (hwa, harmonious).

The “Japan” sense appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana , romaji wa)

  1. peace, harmony
  2. (arithmetic) sum

See also

Proper noun

(hiragana , romaji Wa)

  1. Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
     ()露辞典 (ろじてん)
    Wa-Ro jiten
    Japanese-Russian dictionary
     () (しょく)
    washoku
    Japanese-style food, Japanese cuisine
     () (しつ)
    washitsu
    a Japanese-style room with tatami flooring and usually sliding doors
Usage notes

Often used as a prefix to form compounds, as in the usage examples above.

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
やまと
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

Appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of Yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

In modern Japanese, the Yamato reading is more commonly spelled 大和.

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Proper noun

(hiragana やまと, romaji Yamato)

  1. 大和: Japan, Japanese

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
Irregular

Used as ateji in various names.

Proper noun

(hiragana のどか, romaji Nodoka)

  1. A male or female given name

References

  1. 1 2 3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 1 2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean

Hanja

(hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune-Reischauer hwa, Yale hwa)

  1. harmony, peace
  2. get together

Noun

(hwa) (hangeul )

  1. A free reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes used in ancient times

compounds


Vietnamese

Han character

(hoà, hoạ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings

  • Nôm: hoà, hoạ, huề, hùa

References

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999