| Stroke order|
馬 (radical 187 馬+0, 10 strokes, cangjie input 尸手尸火 (SQSF), four-corner 71327)
- Kangxi radical #187, ⾺ (“horse”).
- 媽, 嗎, 闖, 罵, 螞, 碼, 瑪, 榪, 獁, 傌, 溤, 遤, 鎷, 禡, 䣕, 㾺, 褭
- Index:Chinese radical/馬
- KangXi: page 1433, character 1
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
- Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
- Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4539, character 1
- Unihan data for U+99AC
|Characters in the same phonetic series (馬) (Zhengzhang, 2003) |
Pictogram (象形) ; derived from the pictogram of a horse with its head turned to look back and showing a flowing mane in the wind. The four short strokes at its base (灬) represent its feet, and the sweeping hook stroke in the lower right represents its tail.
Compare also 鳥 (“bird”), whose current form is similar (graphically, 灬 for claws/legs).
Contrast with 鹿 (“deer”), which saw a very different development, and 𢊁 (“bison”) (as in 薦), which is a hybrid: it has the the legs of 馬 (灬) but the head of 鹿.
“Horse” – from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k-m-raŋ ~ s-raŋ. The sense of “big” is derived from “horse”; compare the English uses of horse.
For the insect prefix sense, see 螞. It has converged with the sense of “big”.
- horse (Classifier: 匹; 隻／只)
- (chess) knight
- (Chinese chess) horse
- Original form of 碼／码 (mǎ, “chip for counting”).
- big (prefix for nouns)
- 馬勺 / 马勺 ― mǎsháo ― ladle (big spoon)
- Prefix for names of insects, also written as 螞.
- Short for 馬祖／马祖 (Mǎzǔ).
- Short for 馬來西亞／马来西亚 (Mǎláixīyà).
- A surname.
| Japanese stroke order|
(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)
- 牛馬 (ushiuma): a small breed of horse, extinct since 1947
- 海馬 (umiuma): seahorse
- 牛馬 (gyūba): oxen and horses, beast of burden
- 海馬 (kaiba): seahorse; walrus; hippocampus
- 河馬 (kaba): hippopotamus, a hippo
- 縞馬 (shimauma), 斑馬 (shimauma): zebra
- 騸馬 (senba): gelding
- 馬酔木 (asebi), 馬酔木 (basuiboku): Japanese andromeda
- 馬面 (umazura): a horseface, a very long face; horse-faced, very long-faced
- 馬鹿 (baka): a fool, an idiot; foolish, idiotic, stupid
- 馬鹿力 (bakajikara): incredible strength; incredibly strong
- 馬脚 (bakyaku)
- 馬具 (bagu): horse harness, horse tack
- 馬券 (baken)
- 馬耳東風 (baji tōfū)
- 馬車 (basha): horse-drawn carriage, wagon or cart
- 馬糧 (baryō): horse feed
): a pair of horses
From Old Japanese. Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized, possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word 梅 (ume, mume, “plum”).
The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, “horse”), Mongol морь (morj, “horse”), Korean 말 (mal, “horse”), Mandarin 馬 (mă, “horse”), and Proto-Indo-European *márkos (“horse”) and descendants such as Irish marc (“horse”, archaic) or English mare (“female horse”). More at *márkos.
馬 (counter 匹, hiragana うま, romaji uma)
- a horse
- (shogi) a promoted bishop
- a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials
Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.
馬 (hiragana むま, romaji muma)
- (obsolete) a horse
- c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4372)
- 阿志加良能 美佐可多麻波理 可閇理美須 阿例波久江由久 阿良志乎母 多志夜波婆可流 不破乃世伎 久江弖和波由久 牟麻能都米 都久志能佐伎尓 知麻利為弖 阿例波伊波々牟 母呂々々波 佐祁久等麻乎須 可閇利久麻弖尓
- c. 935 Tosa Nikki
- c. 935 Tosa Nikki
1 2 1988, 国語大辞典（新装版） (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
1 2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
↑ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
馬 • (ma)
Sound (hangeul): 마 (McCune-Reischauer: ma, Yale: ma)
Name (hangeul): 말, 성 (revised: mal, seong, McCune-Reischauer: mal, sŏng, Yale: mal, seng)
- This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text
- 馬車 (마차, macha): horse-drawn carriage
- 競馬 (경마, gyeongma): horserace
- (dialectal) don't
- tomb, grave
- 1916: Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Lục Vân Tiên, lines 921–922
- Before the page has a chance to pay a visit, / He throws himself down upon the grave, crying, lamenting, fretting.
- to open