See also: 夫
, 未, and 夭
| Stroke order|
天 (radical 37 大+1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一大 (MK), four-corner 10430, composition ⿱一大)
- KangXi: page 248, character 4
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5833
- Dae Jaweon: page 500, character 2
- Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 522, character 1
- Unihan data for U+5929
|Characters in the same phonetic series (天) (Zhengzhang, 2003) |
A top line representing the level above a man with outstretched arms (大 (dà)). Ancient representation of the character show a man with a large head, an anthropomorphic representation of heaven.
Original meaning of the word is "sky". Such concept is difficult to depict with a pictogram, hence the current form. Influenced by the glyph, the character was frequently glossed in Old Chinese documents with 顛 (“crown of the head”), and such had led to incorrect hypotheses which regarded 天 as a derivation of 顛 or 巔, "top (of the head/hill)".
Graphical opposite of 立 (lì).
This character was previously reconstructed to have a *tʰ-initial in Old Chinese, but this hypothesis has been largely discounted in recent reconstructions, in light of evidence from early Chinese accounts of dialectal pronunciations, transcription of other languages, as well as cognate/derived characters within Chinese, which has all pointed to a voiceless resonant initial *l̥- in Old Chinese. The book Shiming showed that, by c. 200 CE, this initial had already produced dialectal variation in the pronunciation: People in central-western China pronounced it with the back of the tongue, like 顯 [*xˤenʔ], while people in eastern China pronounced it with the tip of the tongue, like 坦 [*tʰˤanʔ]. An old northwestern dialect variant survives as 祆 (xiān, “God of the Zoroastrians”) [xen], and the word 天竺 (Tiānzhú, “India”) was used to transcribe Old Persian *Hind-uka ("India").
Further etymology is unknown. While it was reconstructed with a /*tʰ-/ initial, it was frequently compared with tengri, the name for God in early Turkic and Mongolic peoples' languages. This now appears unlikely. The only certain external cognate is the Central Bai (a language closely related to Chinese) word heinl (“sky, heaven”) [xẽ⁵⁵].
- sky; heavens; heavenly; celestial
- 天黑了。 ― Tiān hēi le. ― It's getting dark.
- (mythology or religion) heaven as the abode of the gods or the blessed departed; heavenly.
- 上天 ― shàngtiān ― to go up to the sky; to go to heaven
- 天意 ― tiānyì ― Heaven's will
- (mythology or religion) Heaven as an impersonal deity, often translated as God.
- 天主 ― tiānzhǔ ― God
- 老天 ― lǎotiān ― god
- 我的天啊！ ― Wǒ de tiān a! ― Oh my God!
- 天助自助者。 ― Tiān zhù zì zhù zhě. ― God helps those who help themselves.
- top; overhead
- 天橋 / 天桥 ― tiānqiáo ― footbridge
- 天窗 ― tiānchuāng ― skylight
- weather; climate
- †day (24 hours)
- 今天 ― jīntiān ― today
- 明天 ― míngtiān ― tomorrow
- †day (as opposed to night)
- 白天 ― báitiān ― daytime
春天、夏天、秋天、冬天 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
chūntiān, xiàtiān, qiūtiān, dōngtiān [Pinyin]
- spring, summer, autumn, winter
- 天災 / 天灾 ― tiānzāi ― natural disaster
- natural; innate
- 天生 (tiānshēng, “innate”)
- 天性 (tiānxìng, “nature, personality”)
- 天才 (tiāncái, “genius”)
- 日 (rì, “day (to express date)”)
(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)
- heavens, sky
From Old Japanese. Usually appears as a bound form only appearing in compounds. Compare the formation of 目 (ma, bound form in compounds) and 目 (me, standalone form), 手 (ta, bound form in compounds) and 手 (te, standalone form).
天 (hiragana あま, romaji ama)
- (archaic) the sky, the heavens
- the area above a kitchen stove:
- where the smoke collects in an old kitchen using a wood-burning stove
- a shelf or shelves above the stove
- (archaic) heaven
From Old Japanese ama (see above). Likely derived by fusion of ama + い (i, emphatic nominative particle), similar to the derivation of other words such as 神 (kami, kamu + i), 目 (me, ma + i), etc.
天 (hiragana あめ, romaji ame)
- (archaic) the sky, the heavens
- (archaic) heaven
- (archaic) the roof of a palace
- 天に跼り地に蹐む (ame ni sekagamari tsuchi ni nukiashinifumu), 天に跼り地に蹐む (ame ni segukumari tsuchi ninukiashinifumu): “in heaven, bow and step carefully on the ground” → to be humble and respectful in heaven
From Middle Chinese 天 (/tʰen/, “sky; heavens”). Compare modern Mandarin reading tiān.
天 (hiragana てん, romaji ten)
- the sky, the heavens
- (metaphorically) the gods, providence, fate
- 天に唾する (ten ni tsuba suru): “to spit at heaven” → a metaphor for courting disaster
- 天にも昇る心地 (ten ni mo noboru kokochi): “a feeling like rising to heaven” → being in seventh heaven, a really good feeling
- 天を衝く (ten o tsuku): “to pierce the heavens” → to tower, to be very tall
1 2 1988, 国語大辞典（新装版） (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
1 2 3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
1 2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
天 • (cheon)
Sound (hangeul): 천 (revised: cheon, McCune-Reischauer: ch'ŏn)
- (하늘 천, haneul cheon) sky; heaven; Godhead; tao; etc.
天 (thiên, yêu, quách)
- This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text