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Webster 1913 Edition


Scale

Scale

(skāl)
,
Noun.
[AS.
scāle
; perhaps influenced by the kindred Icel.
skāl
balance, dish, akin also to D.
schaal
a scale, bowl, shell, G.
schale
, OHG.
scāla
, Dan.
skaal
drinking cup, bowl, dish, and perh. to E.
scale
of a fish. Cf.
Scale
of a fish,
Skull
the brain case.]
1.
The dish of a balance; hence, the balance itself; an instrument or machine for weighing;
as, to turn the
scale
; – chiefly used in the plural when applied to the whole instrument or apparatus for weighing. Also used figuratively.
Long time in even
scale

The battle hung.
Milton.
The
scales
are turned; her kindness weighs no more
Now than my vows.
Waller.
2.
pl.
(Astron.)
The sign or constellation Libra.
Platform scale
.
See under
Platform
.

Scale

,
Verb.
T.
[
imp. & p. p.
Scaled
;
p. pr. & vb. n.
Scaling
.]
To weigh or measure according to a scale; to measure; also, to grade or vary according to a scale or system.
Scaling
his present bearing with his past.
Shakespeare
To scale a debt, wages, etc.
or
To scale down a debt, wages, etc.
,
to reduce a debt, etc., according to a fixed ratio or scale.
[U.S.]

Scale

,
Noun.
[Cf. AS.
scealu
,
scalu
, a shell, parings; akin to D.
schaal
, G.
schale
, OHG.
scala
, Dan. & Sw.
skal
a shell, Dan.
skiael
a fish scale, Goth.
skalja
tile, and E.
shale
,
shell
, and perhaps also to
scale
of a balance; but perhaps rather fr. OF.
escale
,
escaile
, F.
écaille
scale of a fish, and
écale
shell of beans, pease, eggs, nuts, of German origin, and akin to Goth.
skalja
, G.
schale
. See
Shale
.]
1.
(Anat.)
One of the small, thin, membranous, bony or horny pieces which form the covering of many fishes and reptiles, and some mammals, belonging to the dermal part of the skeleton, or dermoskeleton. See
Cycloid
,
Ctenoid
, and
Ganoid
.
Fish that, with their fins and shining
scales
,
Glide under the green wave.
Milton.
2.
Hence, any layer or leaf of metal or other material, resembling in size and thinness the scale of a fish;
as, a
scale
of iron, of bone, etc.
3.
(Zool.)
One of the small scalelike structures covering parts of some invertebrates, as those on the wings of Lepidoptera and on the body of Thysanura; the elytra of certain annelids. See
Lepidoptera
.
4.
(Zool.)
A scale insect. (See below.)
5.
(Bot.)
A small appendage like a rudimentary leaf, resembling the scales of a fish in form, and often in arrangement;
as, the
scale
of a bud, of a pine cone, and the like
. The name is also given to the chaff on the stems of ferns.
6.
The thin metallic side plate of the handle of a pocketknife. See Illust. of
Pocketknife
.
7.
An incrustation deposit on the inside of a vessel in which water is heated, as a steam boiler.
8.
(Metal.)
The thin oxide which forms on the surface of iron forgings. It consists essentially of the magnetic oxide,
Fe3O4
. Also, a similar coating upon other metals.
Covering scale
(Zool.)
,
a hydrophyllium.
Ganoid scale
.
(Zool.)
See under
Ganoid
.
Scale armor
(Mil.)
,
armor made of small metallic scales overlapping, and fastened upon leather or cloth.
Scale beetle
(Zool.)
,
the tiger beetle.
Scale carp
(Zool.)
,
a carp having normal scales.
Scale insect
(Zool.)
,
any one of numerous species of small hemipterous insects belonging to the family
Coccidae
, in which the females, when adult, become more or less scalelike in form. They are found upon the leaves and twigs of various trees and shrubs, and often do great damage to fruit trees. See
Orange scale
,under
Orange
.
Scale moss
(Bot.)
,
any leafy-stemmed moss of the order
Hepaticae
; – so called from the small imbricated scalelike leaves of most of the species. See
Hepatica
, 2, and
Jungermannia
.

Scale

,
Verb.
T.
1.
To strip or clear of scale or scales;
as, to
scale
a fish; to
scale
the inside of a boiler
.
2.
To take off in thin layers or scales, as tartar from the teeth; to pare off, as a surface.
“If all the mountains were scaled, and the earth made even.”
T. Burnet.
3.
To scatter; to spread.
[Scot. & Prov. Eng.]
4.
(Gun.)
To clean, as the inside of a cannon, by the explosion of a small quantity of powder.
Totten.

Scale

,
Verb.
I.
1.
To separate and come off in thin layers or laminae;
as, some sandstone
scales
by exposure
.
Those that cast their shell are the lobster and crab; the old skins are found, but the old shells never; so it is likely that they
scale
off.
Bacon.
2.
To separate; to scatter.
[Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

Scale

,
Noun.
[L.
scalae
, pl.,
scala
staircase, ladder; akin to
scandere
to climb. See
Scan
; cf.
Escalade
.]
1.
A ladder; a series of steps; a means of ascending.
[Obs.]
2.
Hence, anything graduated, especially when employed as a measure or rule, or marked by lines at regular intervals.
Specifically:
(a)
A mathematical instrument, consisting of a slip of wood, ivory, or metal, with one or more sets of spaces graduated and numbered on its surface, for measuring or laying off distances, etc., as in drawing, plotting, and the like. See
Gunter’s scale
.
(b)
A series of spaces marked by lines, and representing proportionately larger distances;
as, a
scale
of miles, yards, feet, etc., for a map or plan
.
(c)
A basis for a numeral system;
as, the decimal
scale
; the binary
scale
, etc.
(d)
(Mus.)
The graduated series of all the tones, ascending or descending, from the keynote to its octave; – called also the
gamut
. It may be repeated through any number of octaves. See
Chromatic scale
,
Diatonic scale
,
Major scale
, and
Minor scale
, under
Chromatic
,
Diatonic
,
Major
, and
Minor
.
3.
Gradation; succession of ascending and descending steps and degrees; progressive series; scheme of comparative rank or order;
as, a
scale
of being
.
There is a certain
scale
of duties . . . which for want of studying in right order, all the world is in confusion.
Milton.
4.
Relative dimensions, without difference in proportion of parts; size or degree of the parts or components in any complex thing, compared with other like things; especially, the relative proportion of the linear dimensions of the parts of a drawing, map, model, etc., to the dimensions of the corresponding parts of the object that is represented;
as, a map on a
scale
of an inch to a mile
.
Scale of chords
,
a graduated scale on which are given the lengths of the chords of arcs from 0° to 90° in a circle of given radius, – used in measuring given angles and in plotting angles of given numbers of degrees.

Scale

,
Verb.
T.
[Cf. It.
scalare
, fr. L.
scalae
,
scala
. See
Scale
a ladder.]
To climb by a ladder, or as if by a ladder; to ascend by steps or by climbing; to clamber up;
as, to
scale
the wall of a fort
.
Oft have I
scaled
the craggy oak.
Spenser.

Scale

,
Verb.
I.
To lead up by steps; to ascend.
[Obs.]
Satan from hence, now on the lower stair,
That
scaled
by steps of gold to heaven-gate,
Looks down with wonder.
Milton.

Webster 1828 Edition


Scale

SCALE

,
Noun.
[L. id. If the sense is to strip, it coincides with the Gr. to spoil.]
1.
The dish of a balance; and hence, the balance itself, or whole instrument; as, to turn the scale.
Long time in even scale the battle hung.
But in general, we use the plural, scales, for the whole instrument.
The scales are turn'd; her kindness weights no more now than my vows.
2.
The sign of the balance or Libra, in the zodiac.
3.
The small shell or crust which composes a part of the covering of a fish; and hence, any thin layer or leaf exfoliated or separated; a thin lamin; as scales of iron or of bone.
The scales of fish consist of alternate layers of membrane and phosphate of lime. The scales of serpents are composed of a horny membrane, without the calcarious phosphate.
4.
A ladder; series of steps; means of ascending. [L. scala.]
5.
The art of storming a place by mounting the wall on ladders; an escalade, or scalade.
6.
A mathematical instrument of wood or metal, on which are marked line and figures for the purpose of measuring distances, extent or proportions; as a plain scale; a diagonal scale.
7.
Regular gradation; a series rising by steps or degrees like those of a ladder. Thus we speak of the scale of being, in which man occupies a higher rank than brutes, and angels a higher rank than man.
8.
Any instrument, figure or scheme, graduated for the purpose of measuring extent or proportions as a map drawn by a scale of half an inch to a league.
9.
In music, a gamut; a diagram; or a series of lines and spaces rising one above another, on which notes are placed; or a scale consists of the regular gradations of sounds. A scale may be limited to an octave, called by the Greeks a tetrachord, or it may extend to the compass of any voice or instrument.
10.
Any thing graduated or marked with degrees at equal distances.

SCALE

, v.t.
1.
To climb, as by a ladder; to ascend by steps; and applied to the walls of a fortified place, to mount in assault or storm.
Oft have I scal'd the craggy oak.
2.
[from scale, a balance.] To measure; to compare; to weight.
3.
[from scale, the covering of a fish.] to strip or clear of scales; as, to scale a fish.
4.
To take off in thin lamins or scales.
5.
To pare off a surface.
If all the mountains were scaled, and the earth made even -
6.
In the north of England, to spread, as manure or loose substances; also, to disperse; to waste.
7.
In gunnery, to clean the inside of a cannon by the explosion of a small quantity of powder.

SCALE

,
Verb.
I.
To separate and come off in thin layers or lamins.
The old shells of the lobster scale off.

Definition 2022


scale

scale

English

A musical scale

Noun

scale (plural scales)

  1. (obsolete) A ladder; a series of steps; a means of ascending.
  2. An ordered numerical sequence used for measurement.
    Please rate your experience on a scale from 1 to 10.
  3. Size; scope.
    • 2012 January 1, Robert L. Dorit, “Rereading Darwin”, in American Scientist, volume 100, number 1, page 23:
      We live our lives in three dimensions for our threescore and ten allotted years. Yet every branch of contemporary science, from statistics to cosmology, alludes to processes that operate on scales outside of human experience: the millisecond and the nanometer, the eon and the light-year.
    The Holocaust was insanity on an enormous scale.
    There are some who question the scale of our ambitions.
  4. The ratio of depicted distance to actual distance.
    This map uses a scale of 1:10.
  5. A line or bar associated with a drawing, used to indicate measurement when the image has been magnified or reduced
    • 1992, Rudolf M. Schuster, The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America: East of the Hundredth Meridian, volume V, page ix
      Even though precision can be carried to an extreme, the scales which now are drawn in (and usually connected to an appropriate figure by an arrow) will allow derivation of meaningful measurements.
  6. A means of assigning a magnitude.
    The magnitude of an earthquake is measured on the open-ended Richter scale.
  7. (music) A series of notes spanning an octave, tritave, or pseudo-octave, used to make melodies.
  8. A mathematical base for a numeral system.
    the decimal scale; the binary scale
  9. Gradation; succession of ascending and descending steps and degrees; progressive series; scheme of comparative rank or order.
    • Milton
      There is a certain scale of duties [] which for want of studying in right order, all the world is in confusion.
    • 2012 May 13, Phil McNulty, “Man City 3-2 QPR”, in BBC Sport:
      City's players and supporters travelled from one end of the emotional scale to the other in those vital seconds, providing a truly remarkable piece of football theatre and the most dramatic conclusion to a season in Premier League history.
Hyponyms
Derived terms
Related terms
Translations
See also
References

Verb

scale (third-person singular simple present scales, present participle scaling, simple past and past participle scaled)

  1. (transitive) To change the size of something whilst maintaining proportion; especially to change a process in order to produce much larger amounts of the final product.
    We should scale that up by a factor of 10.
  2. (transitive) To climb to the top of.
    Hilary and Norgay were the first known to have scaled Everest.
    • 1918, Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Land That Time Forgot Chapter IX
      At last I came to the great barrier-cliffs; and after three days of mad effort--of maniacal effort--I scaled them. I built crude ladders; I wedged sticks in narrow fissures; I chopped toe-holds and finger-holds with my long knife; but at last I scaled them. Near the summit I came upon a huge cavern.
  3. (intransitive, computing) To tolerate significant increases in throughput or other potentially limiting factors.
    That architecture won't scale to real-world environments.
  4. (transitive) To weigh, measure or grade according to a scale or system.
    • Shakespeare:
      Scaling his present bearing with his past.
Hyponyms
Related terms
Translations

Etymology 2

From Middle English scale, from Old French escale, from Frankish or another Old High German source skala/scāla. Cognate with Old English scealu (shell, husk) (See shale and shell). compare French écale, écaille, Italian scaglia.

Noun

scale (plural scales)

  1. Part of an overlapping arrangement of many small, flat and hard pieces of keratin covering the skin of an animal, particularly a fish or reptile.
    • Milton:
      Fish that, with their fins and shining scales, / Glide under the green wave.
  2. A small piece of pigmented chitin, many of which coat the wings of a butterfly or moth to give them their color.
  3. A flake of skin of an animal afflicted with dermatitis.
  4. Part of an overlapping arrangement of many small, flat and hard protective layers forming a pinecone that flare when mature to release pine nut seeds.
  5. The flaky material sloughed off heated metal.
  6. Scale mail (as opposed to chain mail).
  7. Limescale.
  8. A scale insect.
  9. The thin metallic side plate of the handle of a pocketknife.
Derived terms
Translations

Verb

scale (third-person singular simple present scales, present participle scaling, simple past and past participle scaled)

  1. (transitive) To remove the scales of.
    Please scale that fish for dinner.
  2. (intransitive) To become scaly; to produce or develop scales.
    The dry weather is making my skin scale.
  3. (transitive) To strip or clear of scale; to descale.
    to scale the inside of a boiler
  4. (transitive) To take off in thin layers or scales, as tartar from the teeth; to pare off, as a surface.
    • T. Burnet
      if all the mountains were scaled, and the earth made even
  5. (intransitive) To separate and come off in thin layers or laminae.
    Some sandstone scales by exposure.
    • Francis Bacon
      Those that cast their shell are the lobster and crab; the old skins are found, but the old shells never; so it is likely that they scale off.
  6. (Britain, Scotland, dialect) To scatter; to spread.
  7. (transitive) To clean, as the inside of a cannon, by the explosion of a small quantity of powder.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Totten to this entry?)
Translations

Etymology 3

From Old Norse skál (bowl). Compare Danish skål (bowl, cup), Dutch schaal; German Schale; Old High German scāla; Gothic skalja (skalja), Old English scealu (cup; shell). Cognate with scale, as in Etymology 2.

Noun

scale (plural scales)

  1. A device to measure mass or weight.
    After the long, lazy winter I was afraid to get on the scale.
  2. Either of the pans, trays, or dishes of a balance or scales.
Usage notes
  • The noun is often used in the plural to denote a single device (originally a pair of scales had two pans).
Translations
External links
  • scale up on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
  • scale in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913
  • scale in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911

Anagrams


Italian

Noun

scale f pl

  1. plural of scala

Anagrams