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Definition 2021


Ir

Ir

See also: Appendix:Variations of "ir"

Translingual

Symbol

Ir

  1. (chemistry) symbol for iridium

Czech

Noun

Ir m

  1. Irishman

ir

ir

See also: Appendix:Variations of "ir"

Alemannic German

Pronoun

ir

  1. you (plural)

Declension


Chuukese

Pronoun

ir

  1. them

Related terms


Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ir/, [iɐ̯]

Noun

ir c (singular definite irren, not used in plural form)

  1. verdigris

Galician

Etymology

From Old Portuguese ir, from Latin īre, present active infinitive of ; the forms beginning with V from corresponding forms of vādō; the forms beginning with F from the corresponding forms of sum.

Verb

ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fun, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. first-person singular personal infinitive of ir
  3. third-person singular personal infinitive of ir

Conjugation

See also


Interlingua

Verb

ir

  1. to go

Conjugation

  • Present: va
  • Future: ira
  • Past: iva
  • Present participle: iente (?)
  • Past participle: ite

Antonyms


Kaera

Noun

ir

  1. water

References

  • Gary Holton and Laura Robinson, The Internal History of the Alor-Pantar language family, in The Alor-Pantar languages: History and Typology, edited by Marian Klamer
  • Marian Klamer, One item, many faces: ‘come’ in Teiwa (2010, in wing & Klamer) and Kaera (2014, in Schapper)
  • Gary Holton, Marian Klamer, František Kratochvíl, Laura C. Robinson, Antoinette Schapper, The Historical Relations of the Papuan Languages of Alor and Panta, Oceanic Linguistics 2012:1

Latgalian

Etymology

Shortened from irā, related to Latvian ir and Lithuanian yra (with the same meaning). In Latgalian, the shortened form ir is mostly used in unstressed positions, while irā is mostly common for stressed positions in the sentence.

Verb

ir

  1. is, are (present simple 3rd-person form, singular and plural)

Latin

Alternative forms

Etymology

Cognate with Ancient Greek χείρ (kheír).

Pronunciation

Noun

ir n (indeclinable)

  1. (rare, anatomy) hand

Declension

Not declined; used only in the nominative and accusative singular.

Case Singular
nominative ir
genitive
dative
accusative ir
ablative
vocative

Synonyms

References


Latvian

Etymology 1

From Proto-Baltic *irā (cf. dialectal, archaic forms irād, iraid, irāg, and also Lithuanian yrà, which existed alongside *esti (cf. Old Church Slavonic єстъ (jestŭ), Russian есть (jest’), Lithuanian dialectal ẽsti, Old Prussian ast), initially with basically existential (“there is”) meaning, but later on extending to all copular meanings, thus replacing *esti. In Sudovian, also the first person form irm (I am) is derived from this stem. The origin of Proto-Baltic *irā is, however, unclear. Various sources have been proposed: an older interjection (cf. Lithuanian aurè (look!)), the particle and conjunction ir (both... and...), a noun with the meaning “existence,” “reality,” “thing,” or even (more recently) the Proto-Indo-European secondary third-person verbal ending *-r with a later -extension.[1]

Pronunciation

Verb

ir

  1. (he, she, it) is; 3rd person singular present indicative form of būt
  2. (they) are; 3rd person plural present indicative form of būt
  3. (with the particle lai) let (him, her, it) be; 3rd person singular imperative form of būt
  4. (with the particle lai) let them be; 3rd person plural imperative form of būt

Etymology 2

From Proto-Baltic *ir, from the reduced grade *r̥ of Proto-Indo-European *ar (so, then; question particle) (whence also Latvian ar (with), q.v.). The original meaning “and” (cf. Lithuanian cognate) is found in 16th- and 17th-century texts, but from the 18th century on ir was no longer used in this sense. Cognates include Lithuanian ir̃ (and), Old Prussian ir (also), er ((along) with), Ancient Greek ἄρα, ἄρ', ῥά (ára, ár', rhá, so, then, therefore).[1]

Conjunction

ir

  1. additive conjunction used to join several similar sentence elements, indicating their similar nature: both ... and ..., ... and also ..., ... as well as ...
    gribējas ir smieties, ir raudāt ― one wanted both to laugh and to cry
    nāca ir jaunie, ir vecieboth the young and the old came
    tolaik ir tēvs, ir māte bija miruši ― at that time, both the father and the mother had died
    tā bija droša, interesanta un glīta meitene, kas prata būt ir jautra, ir nopietna ― that was a brave, fun (lit. interesting) and pretty girl, who knew how to be both cheerful and serious
    nakts kā jau nakts: ir mēness spīd, ir tālē rūsa plaiksnī ― the night is like the night (= as usual): the moon shines and also in the distance silent lightning flashes
Synonyms

Particle

ir

  1. used to mark connection and emphasis, reinforcement; syn. arī
    Ludis nolēca lielā dubļu pančkā un tur ir palika, ratiem pakaļ skatīdamies ― Ludis jumped into a big mud puddle and there also he stayed, looking ahead at the cart
    Dūdums pateica: “man vēl laika diezgan”, un pārliecināt viņu par piegādes normu nodošanu pirms termiņa tā ir neizdevās — Dūdums said: “I still have enough time,” and also, so it was impossible to convince him about the rules for deliveray before the deadline
  2. used to mark emphasis, to reinforce; syn. pat: really, even
    tas viņam ir prātā nenāk ― that doesn't even come to his mind
    krūmos ir pa naktīm guļot, pilsētā viņš parādoties retireally sleeping at night in the bushes, he appeared rarely in the city
Synonyms

References

  1. 1 2 Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), ir”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7

Lithuanian

Etymology

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ir (and, also), compare Latvian ir, Old Prussian ir (and, even), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥- (thus, so); compare Ancient Greek ἄρα (ára, so, then, consequently). If the original meaning was "fittingly, accordingly", the root may be identical to *h₂er- (fit together), see artì (near) for more.

Proto-Slavic *i (and, even) is probably not related.

Conjunction

ir̃

  1. (coordinating, cumulative) and, too
  2. (coordinating, illative) and, so
    Bùvo gražùs óras, ir̃ mẽs nùtarėme keliáuti. - the weather was nice, and (=so) we decided to travel.
  3. (coordinating, correlative) bothand

Particle

ir̃

  1. (emphatic) even, and
    Mán ir̃ nepavỹko padarýt! - I didn't even manage that!
  2. (emphatic) exactly, just, precisely
    Jìs ir̃ yrà tàs žmogùs, apiẽ kùrį kal̃bame. - It's him that we're talking about
  3. (interrogative) and, so
    , ir̃ kàs! - So what!

Related terms

  • ar
  • irgi
  • ir kas

Old Swedish

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Norse ír, variant of ér, from Proto-Germanic *jīz, variant of *jūz.

Pronoun

īr

  1. you (plural)

Declension

Descendants

  • Swedish: I, ni

Portuguese

Alternative forms

  • hir (obsolete)
  • yr (obsolete)

Etymology

From Old Portuguese ir, from Latin īre, present active infinitive of (from Proto-Italic *eō, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-); the forms beginning with V from corresponding forms of vādō; the forms beginning with F from the corresponding forms of sum.

Pronunciation

  • (Portugal) IPA(key): /ˈiɾ/
  • (Brazil) IPA(key): /ˈi(ʁ)/
    • Homophone: i (with -r dropping)

Verb

ir (first-person singular present indicative vou, past participle ido)

  1. (intransitive, or transitive with para or a or até) to go (to move to a destination)
    Vamos a pé?
    Do we go on foot?
    Eles foram ao shopping.
    They went to the mall.
    Queríamos ir para casa.
    We wanted to go home.
  2. (auxiliary, with an infinitive) will; to be going to; forms the future tense
    Vou comprar um sapato.
    I will buy a shoe.
    Nós não íamos fazer nada.
    We weren’t going to do anything.
  3. (auxiliary, with a gerund) to keep on; to go on; ~ on; forms the continuative aspect
    A água vai escorrendo até acabar.
    The water keeps on leaking until it is all gone.
  4. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to go; to leave; to depart
    Os homens já se foram todos.
    All the men have left already.
  5. (intransitive, or transitive with para or em or a) to attend; to go to (to be present in an event)
    Sinto muito, não poderei ir à sua festa.
    I’m sorry, I won’t be able to go to your party.
  6. (transitive with até) to go on until; to last to
    A batalha foi até as duas da manhã.
    The battle went on until two AM.
  7. (intransitive, or transitive with em) to do; to fare (to have a good or bad result)
    Fui muito mal em quase todas as provas.
    I did very bad in nearly all the tests.
  8. (intransitive) to be doing (formula used in greetings)
    “Como vai?” “Vou bem, obrigado.”
    “How are you doing?” “I am doing fine, thanks.”
  9. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to be gone (depleted, destroyed; no longer usable)
    Porcaria! Minha TV se foi.
    Damn it! My TV is gone.
  10. (euphemistic, takes a reflexive pronoun) to leave us; to depart (to die)
    Uma oração para os que já se foram.
    A prayer for those who have already left us.
  11. (intransitive) to go (to begin an action or process)
    Um, dois, três, vai!
    One, two, three, go!
    O sinal verde ainda não foi!
    The green light still didn’t light up.
    Vamos!
    Get on with it!
  12. (transitive with com) to match; to go with (to form a good combination with)
    Este casaco não vai bem com os sapatos.
    This jacket doesn't go well with the shoes.
  13. (transitive with com) to like or tolerate someone or something
    Parece que ninguém vai comigo.
    It seems nobody likes me.
  14. (transitive with por) to follow (to take into account when making choices)
    Vai pela razão, não pelos sentimentos.
    Follow reason, not feelings.
    Se a luz não acender, pode encontrar o livro indo pelo tato.
    If the light doesn’t turn on, you can find the book by following your sense of touch.
  15. (poker, intransitive) to call (to match the amount of chips in the pot)
    • 2012, Luís Fernando Veríssimo, “Os pêssegos”, in Diálogos Impossíveis, Editora Objetiva, ISBN 978853900413, page 29:
      Não se ouvia mais nada, além dos ruídos naturais do pôquer. O clicar das fichas. Frases curtas: "Dou cartas." "Vou." "Não vou." "Pago pra ver." "Não é possível!"

Quotations

For usage examples of this term, see Citations:ir.

Conjugation

Synonyms


Romansch

Alternative forms

  • (Surmiran) eir

Etymology

From Latin eō, īre, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-. The forms beginning with V derive from corresponding forms of Latin vādō.

Verb

ir

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Puter, Vallader) to go

Conjugation

Mood Tense 1st s. 2nd s. 3rd s. 1st pl. 2nd pl. 3rd pl.
Indicative Present jau vom ti vas el/ella/ins va nus giain vus giais els/ellas van
Indicative Imperfect jau gieva ti gievas el/ella/ins gieva nus gievan vus gievas els/ellas gievan
Indicative Perfect jau sun ì/ida ti es ì/ida el/ella/ins è ì/ida nus essan ids/idas vus essan ids/idas els/ellas èn ids/idas
Indicative Future jau vegn a ir ti vegns a ir el/ellas/ins vegn a ir nus vignin a ir vus vegnis a ir els/ellas vegnan a ir
Indicative Conditional jau giess ti giessas el/ella giess nus giessan vus giessas els/ellas giessan

Scots

Verb

ir

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be

See also


Spanish

Etymology

The infinitive and forms beginning with i or y are from Latin īre, present active infinitive of (from Proto-Italic *eō, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-); the forms beginning with v from corresponding forms of vādō; the forms beginning with f from corresponding forms of sum.

Verb

ir (first-person singular present voy, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. (reflexive) to go away, to leave. See irse.
  3. (with preposition a followed by an infinitive), to be going to (near future)
    Hoy vamos a ver una película.
    Today we are going to see a movie.

Conjugation

Usage notes

  • The basic meaning "go" applies to any kind of animate or inanimate motion: walk, ride, sail, fly, etc.
  • The voseo imperative of ir is typically replaced by the imperative of andar, and that is andá.[1]

See also

References

  1. “Spanish from Argentina: That Voseo Thing”, in (Please provide the title of the work), accessed 9 October 2015

Welsh

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /iːr/

Adjective

ir (feminine singular ir, plural irion, equative ired, comparative irach, superlative iraf)

  1. raw, unprocessed
  2. fresh, succulent

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
ir unchanged unchanged hir
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Yapese

Pronoun

ir

  1. Third-person singular pronoun; he, she, it