Definify.com

Webster 1913 Edition


-er

-er

.
1.
[AS.
-ere
; akin to L.
-arius
.]
The termination of many English words, denoting the agent; – applied either to men or things; as in hater, farmer, heater, grater. At the end of names of places, -er signifies a man of the place;
as, London
er
, i. e., London man
.
2.
[AS.
-ra
; akin to G.
-er
, Icel.
-are
,
-re
, Goth.
-iza
,
-[GREEK]za
, L.
-ior
, Gr. [GREEK], Skr.
-īyas
.]
A suffix used to form the comparative degree of adjectives and adverbs;
as, warm
er
, soon
er
, lat(e)
er
, earl(y)i
er
.

Definition 2021


-er

-er

See also: Appendix:Variations of "er"

English

Alternative forms

  • -'er (following an abbreviation, or sometimes following a number)

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to verbs) A person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb; used to form an agent noun.
    reader, cooker, computer, runner-up, do-gooder
  2. (added to verbs, informal) A person or thing to which the root verb can satisfactorily be done.
    a real looker: a beautiful woman
    a keeper: a person or thing worth keeping
  3. (added to a noun denoting an occupation) A person whose occupation is (the noun).
    astrologer, cricketer, trumpeter
  4. (added to a number, measurement or noun denoting a quantified set) A name for a person or thing that is based on a number (with or without a noun).
    sixer, six-footer, three-wheeler, first-grader
  5. (slang, chiefly entertainment, with few limitations) Used to form nouns shorter than more formal synonyms.
    percenter (commission agent); one-hander (one-man show); oater (a Western-themed movie)
  6. (informal, added to a noun) One who enjoys.
    Tooners lined up for tickets to Toy Story.
  7. (derogatory, added to nouns) Person who subscribes to a particular conspiracy theory or unorthodox belief.
    anti-vaxxer, birther, flat-Earther, 9/11 truther
Usage notes
  • The suffix may be used to form an agent noun of many verbs. In compound or phrasal verbs, the suffix usually follows the verb component (as in passerby and runner-up) but is sometimes added at the end, irrespective of the position of the verb component (do-gooder) or is added to both components for humorous effect (washer-upper).
  • The entertainment slang sense is sometimes referred to as the Variety -er.
Derived terms
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:English_words_suffixed_with_-er_(agent_noun)'>English words suffixed with -er (agent noun)</a>
Translations

The translations below are a guide only. For more precise translations, see specific words ending with this suffix.

See also

Etymology 2

From Middle English -er, -ere, from Old English -ware (suffix denoting residency or meaning "inhabitant of"), from Proto-Germanic *warjaz (defender, inhabitant), from Proto-Indo-European *wer- (to close, cover, protect, save, defend). Cognate with Dutch -er, German -er, Swedish -are.

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to a proper noun) Suffix denoting a resident or inhabitant of (the place denoted by the proper noun); used to form a demonym.
    New Yorker, Londoner, Dubliner, New Englander
  2. Suffix denoting residency in or around a place, district, area, or region.
    islander, highlander, eastender, prisoner
Derived terms
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:English_words_suffixed_with_-er_(inhabitant)'>English words suffixed with -er (inhabitant)</a>
Translations

Etymology 3

From Middle English -er, -re, from Old English -ru (plural suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-izō (plural suffix). Cognate with Dutch -er (plural ending), German -er (plural ending). See also -ren.

Suffix

-er

  1. (obsolete, no longer productive) Suffix used to form the plural of a small number of English nouns.
    childer, calver, lamber, linder ("loins")
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Representing various noun-suffixes in Old French and Anglo-Norman, variously -er, -ier and -ieur, from Latin -aris, -arius, -atorium.

Suffix

-er

  1. person or thing connected with
    butler

See also

Etymology 5

From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ra, from Proto-Germanic *-izô or Proto-Germanic *-ōzô (a derivative of Etymology 6, below); related to superlative -est.

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to certain adjectives and adverbs, now especially short ones) more; used to form the comparative.
    longer, bigger, faster, sooner, simpler
Usage notes
  • (more; used to form the comparative): Adjectives whose comparatives are formed using the suffix -er also form their superlatives using the suffix -est.
    • Final -y preceded by a consonant becomes -i- when the suffix -er or -est is added.
      easy easier easiest; gray grayer grayest
    • When the stress is on the final (or only) syllable of the adjective, and this syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled when the suffix is added.
      dim dimmer dimmest
    • The suffixes -er and -est may be used to form the comparative and superlative of most adjectives and adverbs that have one syllable and some that have two syllables.
      hot hotter hottest; fast faster fastest; funny funnier funniest
    • Some adjectives and adverbs form their comparatives and superlatives irregularly:
      good better best; far farther farthest, or far further furthest, depending on the meaning
    • The comparatives and superlatives of other adverbs and adjectives that have two syllables, most longer adjectives and adverbs, and adjectives that are participles are formed with more and most.
      rigid more rigid most rigid; enormous more enormous most enormous; burnt more burnt most burnt; freezing more freezing most freezing
    • If in doubt, use more to form the comparative and most to form the superlative; for example, thirsty may become thirstier and thirstiest, but more thirsty and most thirsty are also acceptable.
  • Words ending with -ng are pronounced /ŋ/ by most dialects instead of /ŋɡ/. However, when -er or -est is added to an adjective, the /ɡ/ appears (in most dialects).
    long (/lɒŋ/) longer (/ˈlɒŋ.ɡə(ɹ)/); young (/jʌŋ/) youngest (/ˈjʌŋ.ɡɪst/)
Translations

Etymology 6

From Middle English -er, from Old English -or, from Proto-Germanic *-ōz.

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to certain adverbs) more; used to form the comparative.
Translations

Etymology 7

From Middle English -eren, -ren, -rien, from Old English -erian, -rian, from Proto-Germanic *-rōną. Cognate with West Frisian -erje, Dutch -eren, German -eren, -ern, Danish -re, Swedish -ra.

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to a verb or imitative sound) frequently; used to form frequentative verbs.
    twitter, clamber, bicker, mutter, wander, flutter, flicker, slither, smother, sputter
Synonyms
  • (used to form frequentative): -le
Translations
See also

Etymology 8

Representing Anglo-Norman -er, the infinitive verbal ending.

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to a verb) instance of (the verbal action); used to form nouns from verbs, especially in legal terms.
    disclaimer, misnomer, remitter, rebutter
Derived terms
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:English_words_suffixed_with_-er_(action_noun)'>English words suffixed with -er (action noun)</a>

Etymology 9

From Middle English -er, -ere (diminutive suffix). Compare -el.

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to a verb or noun) used to form diminutives.
    shiver < shive
    sliver < slive
    splinter < splint

Etymology 10

Originally Rugby School slang.

Suffix

-er

  1. Used to form slang or colloquial equivalents of words.
    soccer, rugger, brekkers, Radder, divvers
Translations

Etymology 11

From Mandarin -兒 (-ér).

Suffix

-er

  1. (fiction) signifying a little one, junior, child, younger person. Attached to a name, usually a portion of the given name.
Usage notes

In Chinese-language fiction translated into English, to add a Chinese flavour (Mandarin language), some translators leave the term "-er" untranslated, left in unaccented pinyin. This practice is similar to not translating "-kun" / "-chan" / "-san" or "sensei" in English-language Japanese fiction.

Coordinate terms
  • -chan (similar suffix extracted from Japanese into English, when used in English-translated Japanese fiction)

See also


Afrikaans

Etymology

From Dutch -er.

Suffix

-er

  1. -er

Breton

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɛʁ/

Suffix

-er

  1. person or thing that (does the action indicated by the root); used to form an agent noun.
    brezhoneg (Breton (language)) + -erbrezhoneger (Breton-speaker)
    c'hoari (game; to play) + -erc'hoarier (player, actor)
    tredan (electricity) + -ertredaner (electrician)

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Breton_words_suffixed_with_-er'>Breton words suffixed with -er</a>

Catalan

Etymology

From Old Provençal [Term?], from Latin -ārius.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈe/, /ˈeɾ/

Suffix

-er m

  1. Used to form nouns meaning the location or object where something is usually found.
  2. Used to form nouns meaning a plant which is cultivated to produce something.
  3. Used to form nouns meaning the purpose of something or an object used for that purpose.

Usage notes

The equivalent suffix -era can be used to form feminine nouns with these meanings, but usually only the masculine or feminine form will be found in Catalan.

Suffix

-er m (feminine -era)

  1. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to an inhabitant of somewhere.
  2. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to engaging in a profession.
  3. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to being prone to some activity or characteristic.

Usage notes

Because these senses are used to form adjectives of two forms or nouns referring to animate objects, both the masculine and feminine forms will be found in Catalan, with the lemma entry found at the masculine form.

See also

See also

  • Category:Catalan words suffixed with -er

Chuukese

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɛɾ/

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to possessive nouns) their
  2. (added to verbs as an indirect object) them

Related terms


Danish

Suffix

-er

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs, with the sense "someone or something that verbs"
  2. Forms plural forms of many nouns.
  3. Forms the present tense of many verbs.

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Danish_words_suffixed_with_-er'>Danish words suffixed with -er</a>

Dutch

Etymology 1

From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Dutch -aar.[1]

Suffix

-er m (plural -ers, feminine -ster)

  1. appended to the stem of a verb, it yields a noun which signifies the subject who performs the action of that verb (see agent noun)
Derived terms
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Dutch_words_suffixed_with_-er'>Dutch words suffixed with -er</a>

Etymology 2

From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

Suffix

-er

  1. appended to an adjective, it yields its comparative form
Derived terms
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Dutch_adjective_comparative_forms'>Dutch adjective comparative forms</a>

Etymology 3

From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz.

Suffix

-er

  1. Suffix forming nouns denoting male inhabitants or residents of a place.
    Een Amsterdammer
    A (male) inhabitant of Amsterdam
  2. Suffix forming adjectives denoting something originating from a place.
    Het Groninger museum
    The museum of Groningen
Synonyms
  • (male inhabitant): -aar
  • (origin): -s
Antonyms
  • (male inhabitant): -se (female inhabitant)

References

  1. A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 175

French

Etymology

Latin -are.

Suffix

-er

  1. Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs

Usage notes

  • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix

German

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ɐ]

Etymology 1

From Old High German -āri, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -arius. Cognate with English -er, Dutch -er and -aar.[1]

Suffix

-er

  1. Forms agent nouns etc. from verbs, suffixed to the verb stem.
    arbeiten 'to work'; arbeit- + -er '-er' → Arbeiter 'worker'
    bohren 'to drill'; bohr- + -erBohrer 'drill'

Etymology 2

Suffix

-er

  1. -s (indicating a time of ten years)
    1990 '1990'; 1990 + -er '-s' → 1990er '1990s'

Etymology 3

Suffix

-er m

  1. Forms nouns indicating an inhabitant of a place, or a person originating from a place.
Declension

Suffix

-er

  1. Forms invariable adjectives indicating origin from a place, or association with a place.
Usage notes
  • In modern German, words formed with -er are written with a capital letter (§ 61 of the official spelling rules as of 2011), e.g. ein Berliner Pfannkuchen. In the past, they were sometimes written with a lowercase letter, e.g. ein berliner Pfannkuchen.
    The current official spelling rules prescribe the capital letter without further explanation and without indicating the part of speech of the words formed with the suffix (compare -isch/-sch, derivatives of which are labelled adjectives in § 62). The Duden considers them indeclinable adjectives. The 18th century grammarian Johann Christoph Adelung argued that the words are the genitive plurals of substantives, e.g. Berliner Pfannkuchen = Pfannkuchen der Berliner ("pancake of the Berliners"),[2] and this would explain the capital letter (adjectives usually take lowercase letters).
  • In case of placenames (nomina locorum) which are written with a space, the derived word can be written with a space or with a hyphen (§ 49 of the official spelling rules as of 2011), e.g. Bad SchandauBad Schandauer or Bad-Schandauer.

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:German_words_suffixed_with_-er'>German words suffixed with -er</a>

References

  1. A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 175
  2. Johann Christoph Adelung: Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart, vol. 1, Leipzig, 1793, pp. 1848-1852, sub verbo 4. -Er.

Latin

Pronunciation

Suffix

-er

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of

Luxembourgish

Etymology

From a Proto-Germanic borrowing of Latin -arius.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɐ/

Suffix

-er

  1. -er (suffix used to form agent nouns from verbs)

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Luxembourgish_words_suffixed_with_-er'>Luxembourgish words suffixed with -er</a>

Middle Dutch

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

Suffix

-er

  1. -er. Forms the comparative of adjectives.

Derived terms

See Category:Middle Dutch adjective comparative forms.

Related terms

Descendants


Middle French

Alternative forms

  • -ier (typically early Middle French)

Etymology 1

From Old French -ier, -er, from Latin -are.

Suffix

-er

  1. Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs
Descendants
Usage notes
  • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix

Etymology 2

From Old French -ier.

Suffix

-er

  1. Forms nouns, often denoting professions
    boucher
    butcher
Descendants

Norman

Suffix

-er

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Norman_words_suffixed_with_-er'>Norman words suffixed with -er</a>

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Old Norse -ari.

Suffix

-er

  1. (added to verbs) person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb
  2. (added to place names) person or thing that originates in the place indicated by the place name
  3. (added to numbers) order, position, value or similar indicated by the numeral

References

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Norwegian_Bokm%C3%A5l_words_suffixed_with_-er'>Norwegian Bokmål words suffixed with -er</a>

Old English

Suffix

-er

  1. Alternative form of -or

Old French

Etymology 1

From Latin -āre.

Suffix

-er

  1. Alternative form of -ier, verbal suffix
Usage notes
  • All varieties of Old French use -er but it's more common in Anglo-Norman than in France, specifically before certain consonants such as c and g.

Etymology 2

From Latin -ārius.

Suffix

-er

  1. (chiefly Anglo-Norman) Alternative form of -ier, suffix indicating a profession
    falconer, fauconer
    falconer

Portuguese

Suffix

-er

  1. The infinitive of the second class (-er class) of verbs.

Conjugation


Spanish

Etymology

From Latin -ere

Suffix

-er

  1. The infinitive suffix for many verbs.

Conjugation

See: Appendix:Spanish verbs in -er

See also

  • -ar
  • -ir

Swedish

Suffix

-er

  1. One of two suffices for indefinite plural for nouns of the third declension (common and neuter); the second one is -r
  2. Suffix for present tense, active voice, indicative mood for one of the groups of Swedish verbs

See also

plural suffix
present tense suffix

Turkish

Etymology

From Old Turkic *er, from Proto-Turkic *ēr (man). See er.

Suffix

-er

  1. Added to verbs to form nouns with the sense of "person or thing which does the verb".
    kesmek (to cut) + -erkeser (adze)
  2. A Turkic noun-forming suffix frequently denoting a "follower of a tribe" or simply a "Tribesman" with the sense of "brave or noble warrior". Vowel formation (-ar, -er) depends on the prefix.
    Example 1: Tatar = Tat people + -ar = Tribesman of the 'Tat people'
    Example 2: Azer = Az people + -er = Tribesman of the 'Az people'