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Definition 2022


-es

-es

See also: Appendix:Variations of "es"

English

Suffix

-es

  1. Adds a syllable after a sibilant consonant but is non-syllabic after a vowel
  2. Used to form the regular plural of nouns
    1. that end in "(t)ch" (only when pronounced as [tʃ]) — glitchglitches (but psychpsychs)
    2. that end in "(j)j" — hajjhajjes ("j" is only final in loan words raj, hajj)
    3. that end in "(s)s(e)" — busbuses, househouses
    4. that end in "x" — boxboxes
    5. that end in "(z)z" — waltzwaltzes
    6. that end in "o" (in some cases) — tomatotomatoes (but sopranosopranos)
    7. that end in "sh" — ashashes
    8. that end in "y" — ladyladies
    9. that end in "ce" — fencefences
    10. that end in "(d)ge" — bridgebridges, rangeranges
  3. Used to form the third person singular present of verbs
    1. that end in "(t)ch" (only when pronounced as [tʃ]) — impeachimpeaches (but psychpsychs)
    2. that end in "(s)s" — missmisses
    3. that end in "x" — taxtaxes
    4. that end in "(z)z" — fizzfizzes
    5. that end in "o" — gogoes
    6. that end in "sh" — wishwishes
    7. that end in "y" — crycries
    8. that end in "ce" — dancedances
    9. that end in "(d)ge" — bridgebridges, rangeranges

Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch -esse, borrowed from Northern Old French -esse, from Late Latin -issa (as in abbātissa (abbess)).[1]

Suffix

-es

  1. Creates the female form of persons or occupations, as English -ess.
    zanger (singer, songster)zangeres (female singer; songstress, singeress)

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Dutch_words_suffixed_with_-es'>Dutch words suffixed with -es</a>

Related terms

References

  1. A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 180

Esperanto

Suffix

-es

  1. belonging to. (Ending for genitive correlatives.)

Derived terms


German

Suffix

-es

  1. Alternative form of -s. Used to form the genitive of many nouns.

See also


Hungarian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ɛʃ]

Suffix

-es

  1. (adjective suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality".
    kert (garden)kertes (something with a garden, having a garden)
  2. (noun suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun.
    perec (pretzel)pereces (someone who sells pretzels)
    meggy (morello, sour cherry)meggyes (cherry orchard)
  3. (number suffix) Added to an ordinal number to form a digit or figure.
    egy (one)egyes (the digit or figure 1)

Usage notes

  • (all senses) Harmonic variants:
    -s is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -os is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -as is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -es is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ös is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Hungarian_adjectives_suffixed_with_-es'>Hungarian adjectives suffixed with -es</a>
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Hungarian_nouns_suffixed_with_-es'>Hungarian nouns suffixed with -es</a>

See also

  • Appendix:Hungarian suffixes

Latin

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Suffix

-ēs f (genitive -is); third declension

  1. used to form a third-declension feminine abstract noun designating the result of an action from a verb root or conceived root form
    caedō (I kill or cut)caedēs (slaughter)
    sedeō (I sit)sēdēs (seat)
Declension

Third declension i-stem.

Case Singular Plural
nominative -ēs -ēs
genitive -is -ium
dative -ibus
accusative -em -ēs
ablative -e -ibus
vocative -ēs -ēs

Further forms are nom.sg. -is (e.g. caedis, sedis) and gen.pl. -um (e.g. caedum, sedum).

Derived terms
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Latin_words_suffixed_with_-es'>Latin words suffixed with -es</a>
Synonyms

Etymology 2

Non-lemma forms.

Suffix

-ēs

  1. second-person singular present active subjunctive of

Old English

Suffix

-es

  1. Possessive marker, indicating than an object belongs to the noun
  2. Used in formation of adverbs, originally from the genitive of masculine and neuter nouns, but later added also to feminine nouns by analogy
    dæges (days, adverb)
    nihtes (nights, adverb)

Descendants


Portuguese

Etymology 1

Suffix

-es

  1. forms the 2nd-person singular present indicative of 2nd and 3rd conjugation verbs
  2. forms the 2nd-person singular present subjunctive of 1st conjugation verbs
  3. forms the 2nd-person singular negative imperative of 1st conjugation verbs

Etymology 2

Suffix

-es

  1. forms the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in -r, -z, stressed -s and of some ending in -n

Etymology 3

From Old Portuguese -es, -ez, from the Latin genitive suffix -is of the third declension (Appendix:Latin third declension), originating as a calque of surname-formation conventions of the Visigoths.

Compare Spanish -ez.

Suffix

-es

  1. (historical) -son (a suffix added to a given name to form a patronymic surname)
    Fernandes, "son of Fernando"
    Henriques, "son of Henrique"
    Martins, "son of Martim"
    Rodrigues, "son of Rodrigo"

Spanish

Suffix

-es

  1. Suffix indicating the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in certain consonants (most often -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j, -s, -x, -ch, with some exceptions).
  2. Suffix indicating the second-person singular present indicative of -er and -ir verbs.
  3. Suffix indicating the second-person singular present subjunctive of -ar verbs

See also


Swedish

Suffix

-es

  1. Suffix used for marking the passive voice of verbs. This variant is used for the present passive of those verbs of the second and fourth conjugations (weak and strong -er verbs respectively) that have stems ending in s. Other verbs normally take only -s. However, until the middle decades of the 20th century (approximately) it was rule to use -es with all -er verbs, which today is considered archaic. This use may occasionally appear in more modern texts (certain phrases). läsa (to read)läses (is read), låsa (to lock)låses (is locked)
  2. -ese; making a nationality from the name of a country

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Swedish_words_suffixed_with_-es'>Swedish words suffixed with -es</a>

See also


Welsh

Etymology

From the Proto-Brythonic -issā, ultimately borrowed from (or perhaps cognate to) the Latin -issa.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɛs/

Suffix

-es

  1. Used to form nouns meaning the female equivalent of.
    athro ((male) teacher)athrawes (female teacher)
    cadno (fox)cadnawes (vixen)

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Welsh_words_suffixed_with_-es'>Welsh words suffixed with -es</a>

Yola

Etymology

From Middle English -es, from Old English -as, nominative-accusative plural ending of masculine a-stem (i.e. strong) declension nouns, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs, *ōz, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending). Cognate with English -s (plural noun ending).

Suffix

-es

  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns.