See also: Appendix:Variations of "es"
From Middle Dutch -esse, borrowed from Northern Old French -esse, from Late Latin -issa (as in abbātissa (“abbess”)).
- Creates the female form of persons or occupations, as English -ess.
- zanger (“singer, songster”) → zangeres (“female singer; songstress, singeress”)
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Dutch_words_suffixed_with_-es'>Dutch words suffixed with -es</a>
↑ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; § 180
- belonging to. (Ending for genitive correlatives.)
Terms derived from -es
- (nonce) alies (“belonging to someone else, someone else's”)
- ĉies (“belonging to everyone, everyone's”)
- ies (“belonging to someone, someone's”)
- kies (“belonging to whom, whose”)
- nenies (“belonging to nobody, nobody's”)
- ties (“belonging to that one, that one's”)
- Alternative form of -s. Used to form the genitive of many nouns.
- (adjective suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality".
- kert (“garden”) → kertes (“something with a garden, having a garden”)
- (noun suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun.
- perec (“pretzel”) → pereces (“someone who sells pretzels”)
- meggy (“morello, sour cherry”) → meggyes (“cherry orchard”)
- (number suffix) Added to an ordinal number to form a digit or figure.
- egy (“one”) → egyes (“the digit or figure 1”)
- (all senses) Harmonic variants:
- -s is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
- -os is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -as is added to other back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -es is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
- -ös is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Hungarian_adjectives_suffixed_with_-es'>Hungarian adjectives suffixed with -es</a>
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Hungarian_nouns_suffixed_with_-es'>Hungarian nouns suffixed with -es</a>
- Appendix:Hungarian suffixes
-ēs f (genitive -is); third declension
- used to form a third-declension feminine abstract noun designating the result of an action from a verb root or conceived root form
- caedō (“I kill or cut”) → caedēs (“slaughter”)
- sedeō (“I sit”) → sēdēs (“seat”)
Third declension i-stem.
Further forms are nom.sg. -is (e.g. caedis, sedis) and gen.pl. -um (e.g. caedum, sedum).
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Latin_words_suffixed_with_-es'>Latin words suffixed with -es</a>
- second-person singular present active subjunctive of -ō
- Possessive marker, indicating than an object belongs to the noun
- Used in formation of adverbs, originally from the genitive of masculine and neuter nouns, but later added also to feminine nouns by analogy
- dæges (“days”, adverb)
- nihtes (“nights”, adverb)
- forms the 2nd-person singular present indicative of 2nd and 3rd conjugation verbs
- forms the 2nd-person singular present subjunctive of 1st conjugation verbs
- forms the 2nd-person singular negative imperative of 1st conjugation verbs
- forms the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in -r, -z, stressed -s and of some ending in -n
From Old Portuguese -es, -ez, from the Latin genitive suffix -is of the third declension (Appendix:Latin third declension), originating as a calque of surname-formation conventions of the Visigoths.
Compare Spanish -ez.
- (historical) -son (a suffix added to a given name to form a patronymic surname)
- Fernandes, "son of Fernando"
- Henriques, "son of Henrique"
- Martins, "son of Martim"
- Rodrigues, "son of Rodrigo"
- Suffix used for marking the passive voice of verbs. This variant is used for the present passive of those verbs of the second and fourth conjugations (weak and strong -er verbs respectively) that have stems ending in s. Other verbs normally take only -s. However, until the middle decades of the 20th century (approximately) it was rule to use -es with all -er verbs, which today is considered archaic. This use may occasionally appear in more modern texts (certain phrases). läsa (“to read”) → läses (“is read”), låsa (“to lock”) → låses (“is locked”)
- -ese; making a nationality from the name of a country
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Swedish_words_suffixed_with_-es'>Swedish words suffixed with -es</a>
From the Proto-Brythonic -issā, ultimately borrowed from (or perhaps cognate to) the Latin -issa.
- Used to form nouns meaning the female equivalent of.
- athro (“(male) teacher”) → athrawes (“female teacher”)
- cadno (“fox”) → cadnawes (“vixen”)
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Welsh_words_suffixed_with_-es'>Welsh words suffixed with -es</a>