See also: Appendix:Variations of "an"
- Of or pertaining to; an adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. (Often added to words of Latin origin, but also used with words of other origins. When a word ends in a, -n is used instead.)
- Rome : Roman
- Appended to nouns to form an agent noun. (When males with a profession are distinguished from females, males are -an, females -(i)enne.)
- comedian, from comedy + -an
historian, from history + -an
- (adjective-forming suffix): -al, -ar, -ese, -esque, -ic, -id, -ish, -like, -oid, -ous, -y
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:English_words_suffixed_with_-an'>English words suffixed with -an</a>
- (added to possessive nouns) his, hers, its
Chuukese possessive determiners
- forms the infinitive of verbs
- Obsolete form of -am.
- (personal) Forms the impersonal indicative present forms of verbs that include back vowels (a, o or u or i or e with a, o or u — compare -än), appended to the infinitive.
- No changes in verbs that end in one a.
- juosta + -an -> juostaan
- Verbs ending in -oa the beginning stem is followed by -ta- and then by this.
- sanoa, stem sano- + -ta- + -an -> sanotaan
- Verbs ending in -aa or -ea the beginning stem is followed by -eta- and then by this.
- laittaa, stem lait- + -eta- + -an -> laitetaan
- paistaa, stem paist- + -eta- + -an -> paistetaan
- laskea, stem lask- + -eta- + -an -> lasketaan
- (case suffix) A suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
- laiva boat (word includes back vowels, a — cf. -än) -> + -an = laivaan (on)to a/the boat; (in)to a/the boat
- (possessive) A variant for the third-person suffix -nsa, see the usage notes below.
- (third-person possessive suffix variant): When the third-person suffix -nsa is appended to non-nominative noun forms that end in a single -a (those that are in singular and plural inessive, elative, adessive, ablative, essive and abessive and plural partitive and singular partitive ending with -ta), the S and A are very often omitted from the suffix and the last A of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -an. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable (cf. -nsä). This same omission takes very often place also in the nominal verb forms used in shortened sentences (see the meanings of -nsa) and in the adverbs requiring this suffix:
- (parti.) laitettansa -> laitettaan — koiraansa -> -"- (no changes)
- (iness.) laitteessansa -> laitteessaan — koirassansa -> koirassaan
- (elat.) laitteestansa -> laitteestaan — koirastansa -> koirastaan
- (adess.) laitteellansa -> laitteellaan — koirallansa -> koirallaan
- (ablat.) laitteeltansa -> laitteeltaan — koiraltansa -> koiraltaan
- (ess.) laitteenansa -> laitteenaan — koiranansa -> koiranaan
- (abess.) laitteettansa -> laitteettaan — koirattansa -> koirattaan
- (partit.) laitteitansa -> laitteitaan — koiriansa -> koiriaan
- (iness.) laitteissansa -> laitteissaan — koirissansa -> koirissaan
- (elat.) laitteistansa -> laitteistaan — koiristansa -> koiristaan
- (adess.) laitteillansa -> laitteillaan — koirillansa -> koirillaan
- (ablat.) laitteiltansa -> laitteiltaan — koiriltansa -> koiriltaan
- (ess.) laitteinansa -> laitteinaan — koirinansa -> koirinaan
- (abess.) laitteittansa -> laitteittaan — koirittansa -> koirittaan
- (adverbial suffix) Added to an adjective or numeral to create an adverb.
- pontos (“accurate”) → pontosan (“accurately”)
- hat (“six”) → Hatan mentünk moziba. - Six of us went to the cinema.
- nyolc (“eight”) → Nyolcan vannak a szobában. - There are eight people in the room.
- (verb suffix) Added to a stem - often an onomatopoeias - to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
- kattan (“to click, to make one clicking sound”)
- robban (“to explode”)
- (adverbial suffix) Harmonic variants:
- -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
- -an is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
- -en is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant
- (verb suffix) Harmonic variants:
- -an is added to back vowel words
- -en is added to front vowel words
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Hungarian_adverbs_suffixed_with_-an'>Hungarian adverbs suffixed with -an</a>
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Hungarian_verbs_suffixed_with_-an'>Hungarian verbs suffixed with -an</a>
- Appendix:Hungarian suffixes
From Proto-Germanic *-aną
- (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of most verbs (exceptions are verbs like flēon (“to flee”))
- singan (“to sing”)
- niman (“to take”)
Presumably from Proto-Germanic *-ōniz.
- (deverbative suffix) Used to derive nouns from class 2 weak verbs.
- friða (“to pacify”) + -an → friðan (“pacifying”)
- sanna (“to assert, prove”) + -an → sannan (“assertion, confirmation”)
- synja (“to deny”) + -an → synjan (“denial”)
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Old_Norse_words_suffixed_with_-an'>Old Norse words suffixed with -an</a>
-an m, n (feminine singular -ană, masculine plural -ani, feminine and neuter plural -ane)
- Added to nouns and adjectives as an augmentative suffix.
- gras (“fat”) + -an → grăsan (“fatso”)
- Forms adjectives and nouns describing things and characteristics of a city, region, or country; -an
- Australia (“Australia”) + -an → australian (“Australian”)
- Forms names of male animals.
- gâscă (“goose”) + -an → gâscan (“gander”)
declension of -an
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Romanian_words_suffixed_with_-an'>Romanian words suffixed with -an</a>
From Old Irish -án.
- A masculine suffix used to form nouns meaning a smaller form of something, often used for male given names.
- Cailean, Eòghan, Ailean, Beathan
- clàran, clachan, bioran
Cognate to Irish -anna, Manx -yn.
- Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
- clach (“stone”) → clachan pl
- damh (“ox, stag”) → damhan pl
- leannan (“lover, sweetheart”) → leannanan pl
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Scottish_Gaelic_words_suffixed_with_-an'>Scottish Gaelic words suffixed with -an</a>
-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)
- Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a (often negative) feature or endearment.
From Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ.
-an (Cyrillic spelling -ан)
- Suffix appended to words to create an adjective.
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Serbo-Croatian_words_suffixed_with_-an'>Serbo-Croatian words suffixed with -an</a>
- making a noun from a verb, similar to -ing and -ning, having -ningar as the plural, e.g. predika (“to preach”) → predikan (“a sermon”)
- -an; making a noun, describing a person by belief or nationality, e.g. Tibet → tibetan, lutheran, vegetarian
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Swedish_words_suffixed_with_-an'>Swedish words suffixed with -an</a>
- actor trigger: to do something to a person or a thing
- Buksan mo ang pinto.
- (You) open the door. (You is focused).
- object trigger: to cause something to become; to make
- Binagalan ni Sue ang kotse.
- Sue slowed down the car. (The car is focused).
- directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
- Tinitingnan ko ang manwal.
- I'm looking at the manual. (The manual is focused).
- benefactive trigger: to do something for
- Titirhan ko si Roy ng keyk.
- I'll leave some cake for Roy. (Roy is focused).
- object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
- Winawalis-walisan; ko ang sahig.
- I'm sweeping the floor a bit. (The floor is focused).
- directional trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of, occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
- Tinutulung-tulungan ni Jessy si Patty.
- Jessy helped Patty a bit. (Patty is focused).
- a place where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
- aklat (book) + -an = aklatan (library)
- basura (trash) + -an = basurahan (trash can)
- a place where the action expressed by the root is performed
- kain (eat) + -an = kainan (place where people eat e.g. restaurant, café,...)
- a period in which the action expressed by the root is collectively performed
- ani (harvest) + -an = anihan (harvest time)
- pasok (entry, class, work) + -an = pasukan (school time, school year)
- a tool or an object that is used to measure what is meant by the root
- oras (time) + -an = orasan (clock, watch)
- timbang (weight) + -an = timbangan (weighing scale)
- reciprocal or joint performance of the action expressed by the root
- sayaw (dance) + -an = sayawan (dancing together)
- kanta (sing) + -an = kantahan (singing together)
Note on morphophonemics
- Normally, /h/ is inserted before -an when the root word end with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/.
- ganti + -an = gantihan
- talo + -an = talunan
- Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
- sunod + -an = sundan
- takip + -an = takpan
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Tagalog_words_suffixed_with_-an'>Tagalog words suffixed with -an</a>
- Used to indicate someone who is or does something
► <a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Volap%C3%BCk_words_suffixed_with_-an'>Volapük words suffixed with -an</a>