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Webster 1913 Edition


Over

O′ver

(ō′vẽr)
,
p
rep.
[AS.
ofer
; akin to D.
over
, G.
über
, OHG.
ubir
,
ubar
, Dan.
over
, Sw.
öfver
, Icel.
yfir
, Goth.
ufar
, L.
super
, Gr.
ὑπέρ
, Skr.
upari
. √199. Cf.
Above
,
Eaves
,
Hyper-
,
Orlop
,
Super-
,
Sovereign
,
Up
.]
1.
Above, or higher than, in place or position, with the idea of covering; – opposed to
under
;
as, clouds are
over
our heads; the smoke rises
over
the city.
The mercy seat that is
over
the testimony.
Ex. xxx. 6.
Over
them gleamed far off the crimson banners of morning.
Longfellow.
2.
Across; from side to side of; – implying a passing or moving, either above the substance or thing, or on the surface of it;
as, a dog leaps
over
a stream or a table
.
Certain lakes . . . poison birds which fly
over
them.
Bacon.
3.
Upon the surface of, or the whole surface of; hither and thither upon; throughout the whole extent of;
as, to wander
over
the earth; to walk
over
a field, or
over
a city.
4.
Above; – implying superiority in excellence, dignity, condition, or value;
as, the advantages which the Christian world has
over
the heathen
.
Swift.
5.
Above in authority or station; – implying government, direction, care, attention, guard, responsibility, etc.; – opposed to
under
.
Thou shalt be
over
my house.
Gen. xli. 40.
I will make thee rules
over
many things.
Matt. xxv. 23.
Dost thou not watch
over
my sin ?
Job xiv. 16.
His tender mercies are
over
all his works.
Ps. cxlv. 9.
6.
Across or during the time of; from beginning to end of;
as, to keep anything
over
night; to keep corn
over
winter.
7.
Above the perpendicular height or length of, with an idea of measurement;
as, the water, or the depth of water, was
over
his head,
over
his shoes
.
8.
Beyond; in excess of; in addition to; more than;
as, it cost
over
five dollars
.
Over all this.”
Chaucer.
9.
Above, implying superiority after a contest; in spite of; notwithstanding;
as, he triumphed
over
difficulties; the bill was passed
over
the veto.
Over, in poetry, is often contracted into o’er.
Over his signature (or name) is a substitute for the idiomatic English form, under his signature (name, hand and seal, etc.), the reference in the latter form being to the authority under which the writing is made, executed, or published, and not the place of the autograph, etc.
Over all
(Her.)
,
placed over or upon other bearings, and therefore hinding them in part; – said of a charge.
Over one's head
,
Over head and ears
,
beyond one's depth; completely; wholly; hopelessly;
as,
over head and ears
in debt
.
head over heels
(a)
completely; intensely;
as,
head over heels
in love
.
[Colloq.]
(b)
in a tumbling manner;
as, to fall
head over heels
down the stairs
.
(c)
precipitously and without forethought; impulsively.
Over the left
.
See under
Left
.
To run over
(Mach.)
,
to have rotation in such direction that the crank pin traverses the upper, or front, half of its path in the forward, or outward, stroke; – said of a crank which drives, or is driven by, a reciprocating piece.

O′ver

,
adv.
1.
From one side to another; from side to side; across; crosswise;
as, a board, or a tree, a foot
over
, i. e., a foot in diameter
.
2.
From one person or place to another regarded as on the opposite side of a space or barrier; – used with verbs of motion;
as, to sail
over
to England; to hand
over
the money; to go
over
to the enemy.
“We will pass over to Gibeah.”
Judges xix. 12.
Also, with verbs of being: At, or on, the opposite side;
as, the boat is
over
.
3.
From beginning to end; throughout the course, extent, or expanse of anything;
as, to look
over
accounts, or a stock of goods; a dress covered
over
with jewels.
4.
From inside to outside, above or across the brim.
Good measure, pressed down . . . and running
over
.
Luke vi. 38.
5.
Beyond a limit; hence, in excessive degree or quantity; superfluously; with repetition;
as, to do the whole work
over
.
“So over violent.”
Dryden.
He that gathered much had nothing
over
.
Ex. xvi. 18.
6.
In a manner to bring the under side to or towards the top;
as, to turn (one's self)
over
; to roll a stone
over
; to turn
over
the leaves; to tip
over
a cart.
7.
Completed; at an end; beyond the limit of continuance; finished;
as, when will the play be
over
?
.
“Their distress was over.”
Macaulay.
“The feast was over.”
Sir W. Scott.
Over, out, off, and similar adverbs, are often used in the predicate with the sense and force of adjectives, agreeing in this respect with the adverbs of place, here, there, everywhere, nowhere; as, the games were over; the play is over; the master was out; his hat is off.
Over is much used in composition, with the same significations that it has as a separate word; as in overcast, overflow, to cast or flow so as to spread over or cover; overhang, to hang above; overturn, to turn so as to bring the underside towards the top; overact, overreach, to act or reach beyond, implying excess or superiority.
All over
.
(a)
Over the whole; upon all parts; completely;
as, he is spatterd with mud
all over
.
(b)
Wholly over; at an end;
as, it is
all over
with him
.
Over again
,
once more; with repetition; afresh; anew.
Dryden.
Over against
,
opposite; in front.
Addison.
Over and above
,
in a manner, or degree, beyond what is supposed, defined, or usual; besides; in addition;
as, not
over and above
well
.
“He . . . gained, over and above, the good will of all people.”
L' Estrange.
Over and over
,
repeatedly; again and again.
To boil over
.
See under
Boil
,
Verb.
I.
To come it over
,
To do over
,
To give over
, etc.
See under
Come
,
Do
,
Give
, etc.
To throw over
,
to abandon; to betray. Cf.
To throw overboard
, under
Overboard
.

O′ver

,
Adj.
1.
Upper; covering; higher; superior; – chiefly used in composition;
as,
over
shoes,
over
coat,
over
-garment,
over
lord
.

O′ver

,
Noun.
(Cricket)
A certain number of balls (usually four) delivered successively from behind one wicket, after which the ball is bowled from behind the other wicket as many times, the fielders changing places.

Webster 1828 Edition


Over

O'VER

, prep. [L. super., Gr.]
1.
Across; from side to side; implying a passing or moving either above the substance or thing, or on the surface of it. Thus we say, a dog leaps over a stream, or over a table; a boat sails over a lake.
2.
Above in place or position; opposed to below; as the clouds over our heads. The smoke rises over the city.
The mercy-seat that is over the testimony. Ex. 30.
3.
Above, denoting superiority in excellence, dignity or value; as the advantages which the christian world has over the heathen.
Young Pallas shone conspicuous o'er the rest.
4.
Above in authority, implying the right or power of superintending or governing; opposed to under.
Thou shalt be over my house. Gen. 41.
I will make thee ruler over many things. Matt. 25.
5.
Upon the surface or whole surface; through the whole extent; as, to wander over the earth; to walk over a field, or over a city.
6.
Upon. Watch over your children.
Dost thou not watch over my sin? Job. 14.
His tender mercies are over all his works. Ps. 145.
7.
During the whole time; from beginning to end; as, to keep any thing over night; to keep corn over winter.
8.
Above the top; covering; immersing; as, the water is over the shoes or boots.
Over night. In this phrase, over sometimes signifies before; as, when preparing for a journey, we provide things necessary over night.
Over, in poetry, is often contracted into o'er.

O'VER

, adv.
1.
From side to side; as a board a foot over; a tree a foot over, a foot in diameter.
2.
On the opposite side. The boat is safe over.
3.
From one to another by passing; as, to deliver over goods to another.
4.
From one country to another by passing; as, to carry any thing over to France, or to bring any thing over to England.
5.
On the surface.
6.
Above the top.
Good measure, pressed down and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. Luke 6.
7.
More than the quantity assigned; beyond a limit.
He that gathered much had nothing over. Ex. 14.
8.
Throughout; from beginning to end; completely; as, to read over a book; to argue a question over again.
Over and over, repeatedly; once and again.
And every night review'd it o'er and o'er.
Over again, once more; with repetition.
O kill not all my kindred o'er again.
Over and above, besides; beyond what is supposed or limited.
He gained, over and above, the good will of the people.
Over against, opposite; in front.
Over against this church stands a large hospital.
Over is used with rolling or turning from side to side; as, to turn over; to roll over.
1.
To give over, to cease from; as, to give over an enterprize.
2.
To consider as in a hopeless state; as, the physicians have given over their patient.
Over, in composition, denotes spreading, covering above; as in overcast, overflow; or across, as to overhear; or above, as to overhang; or turning, changing sides, as in overturn; or more generally beyond, implying excess or superiority, as in overact, overcome.

O'VER

,
Adj.
1.
Past.
The Olympic games were over.
2.
Upper; covering; as over-shoes; over-leather.

Definition 2022


over

over

See also: över, Över, øver, over-, and över-

English

Adjective

over (not comparable)

  1. Finished; ended or concluded.
    The show is over.
Usage notes

Not used before a noun.

Derived terms
Translations

Adverb

over (not comparable)

  1. Thoroughly; completely; from beginning to end.
    Let's talk over the project at tomorrow's meeting.
    Let me think that over.
    I'm going to look over our department's expenses.
    Let's go over scene 3 from the top.
  2. From an upright position to being horizontal.
    He tipped the bottle over, and the water came gushing out.
    That building just fell over!
    He bent over to touch his toes.
  3. Horizontally; left to right or right to left.
    Slide the toilet-paper dispenser's door over when one roll is empty in order to reveal the other.
    I moved over to make room for him to sit down.
  4. From one position or state to another.
    Please pass that over to me.
    He came over to our way of thinking on the new project.
    Come over and play!
    I'll bring over a pizza.
  5. Overnight (throughout the night).
    We stayed over at Grandma's.
    Can I sleep over?
  6. (US, usually with do) Again; another time; once more; over again.
    I lost my paper and I had to do the entire assignment over.
  7. (procedure word, military) a procedure word meaning that a station is finished transmitting and is expecting a response.
    Bravo Six, this is Bravo Six Four. Stand by for ten mike report one dash three, over.
    Bravo Six Four, this is Bravo Six Actual. Send your traffic, over.
Translations

Noun

over (plural overs)

  1. (cricket) A set of six legal balls bowled.
  2. Any surplus amount of money, goods delivered, etc.
    • 2008, G. Puttick, Sandy van Esch, The Principles and Practice of Auditing (page 609)
      ...standard cash count forms used to record the count and any overs or unders.
Translations

Preposition

over

  1. Physical positioning.
    1. On top of; above; higher than; further up.
      Hold the sign up over your head.   climb up the ladder and look over [the roof]
      • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)
        Over them gleamed far off the crimson banners of morning.
      • 2013 September-October, Henry Petroski, The Evolution of Eyeglasses”, in American Scientist:
        The ability of a segment of a glass sphere to magnify whatever is placed before it was known around the year 1000, when the spherical segment was called a reading stone, [] . Scribes, illuminators, and scholars held such stones directly over manuscript pages as an aid in seeing what was being written, drawn, or read.
    2. Across or spanning.
      There is a bridge over the river.
      • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
        Certain lakes [] poison birds which fly over them.
      • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 3, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
        My hopes wa'n't disappointed. I never saw clams thicker than they was along them inshore flats. I filled my dreener in no time, and then it come to me that 'twouldn't be a bad idee to get a lot more, take 'em with me to Wellmouth, and peddle 'em out. Clams was fairly scarce over that side of the bay and ought to fetch a fair price.
      • 2013 June 29, A punch in the gut”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8842, page 72-3:
        Mostly, the microbiome is beneficial. It helps with digestion and enables people to extract a lot more calories from their food than would otherwise be possible. Research over the past few years, however, has implicated it in diseases from atherosclerosis to asthma to autism.
    3. In such a way as to cover.
      drape the fabric over the table;  there is a roof over the house
    4. From one physical position to another via an obstacle that must be traversed vertically, first upwards and then downwards.
      The dog jumped over the fence.
      I'll go over [the fence] first and then help you.
      Let's walk over the hill to get there.
  2. By comparison.
    1. More than; to a greater degree.
      I prefer the purple over the pink.
    2. Beyond; past; exceeding; too much or too far.
      I think I’m over my limit for calories for today.
    3. (in certain collocations) As compared to.
      Sales are down this quarter over last.
  3. (mathematics) Divided by.
    four over two equals two over one
  4. Finished with; done with; from one state to another via a hindrance that must be solved or defeated; or via a third state that represents a significant difference from the first two.
    We got over the engineering problems and the prototype works great.
    I am over my cold and feel great again.
    I know the referee made a bad call, but you have to get over it [your annoyance with the referee's decision].
    She is finally over [the distress of] losing her job.
    He is finally over his [distress over the loss of the relationship with his] ex-girlfriend.
  5. While using, especially while consuming.
    • 1990, Seymour Chatman, Coming to Terms, Cornell, ISBN 0801497361, page 100:
      Six diners in business clothes—five attractive young women and a balding middle-aged man—relax over cigarettes.
    • 1998, Marian Swerdlow, Underground Woman, Temple, ISBN 1566396107, page 88 :
      Sunday had been my favorite day at Woodlawn. A long W.A.A. [="work as assigned" period], having coffee and croissants with Mark over the Sunday Times.
    • 2009, Sara Pennypacker, The Great Egyptian Grave Robbery, Scholastic, ISBN 9780545207867, page 79:
      Over meatloaf and mashed potatoes (being careful not to talk with his mouth full), Stanley told about his adventure.
  6. Concerning or regarding.
    The two boys had a fight over whose girlfriend was the best.
    • 2013 August 10, Can China clean up fast enough?”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8848:
      It has jailed environmental activists and is planning to limit the power of judicial oversight by handing a state-approved body a monopoly over bringing environmental lawsuits.
  7. Above, implying superiority after a contest; in spite of; notwithstanding.
    We triumphed over difficulties.
    The bill was passed over the veto.
    It was a fine victory over their opponents.
Usage notes

When used in the context of "from one location to another", over implies that the two places are at approximately the same height or the height difference is not relevant. For example, if two offices are on the same floor of a building, an office worker might say I'll bring that over for you, while if the offices were on different floors, the sentence would likely be I'll bring that up [down] for you. However, distances are not constrained, e.g. He came over from England last year and now lives in Los Angeles or I moved the stapler over to the other side of my desk.

Translations

Interjection

over

  1. In radio communications: end of sentence, ready to receive reply.
    How do you receive? Over!
Translations
Related terms

References

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The semantic network for over", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Etymology 2

From Middle English over (riverbank, seashore, brink), from Old English ōfer (riverbank, seashore, brink, edge, margin, border), from Proto-Germanic *ōferaz. Cognate with Dutch oever (riverbank, shore), German Ufer (shore, shoreline, riverbank), Low German Över (shore, riverbank).

Noun

over (plural overs)

  1. (rare, dialectal or obsolete) A shore, riverbank.
    The sea's over.
    Cassibola was ready at Dover, & renged (encamped) his men by the over. (Mannyng's Chronicle)
Usage notes

Now mostly found in place names, as in Westover or Overton, Hampshire (a town built on the River Test). Fell out of use in the 16th century.

References

Statistics

Most common English words before 1923: us · before · see · #92: over · know · much · after

Anagrams


Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse yfir.

Preposition

over

  1. above
    Skyer hænger over byen.
    Clouds hang above the city.
  2. past an hour
    Klokken er fjorten minutter over sytten.
    It's fourteen minutes past five p.m.

This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Etymology 2

From Old Norse ofar.

Adverb

over

  1. across
    Han kom over grænsen.
    He got across the border.
  2. asunder; in two
    Vil du skære bollen over?
    Would you cut the bun in two?

This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Etymology 3

Shortening of overkrydder.

Noun

over c (singular definite overen, plural indefinite overe)

  1. (informal) The upper curved portion of a roll or a similar food.
    Jeg foretrækker overen.
    I prefer the top slice.
Inflection
Derived terms
  • overkrydder
Antonyms

Etymology 4

Borrowing from English over.

Noun

over c (singular definite overen, plural indefinite overe or overs)

  1. (cricket) A set of six legal balls bowled, an over.
Inflection

Dutch

Pronunciation

Etymology

From Old Dutch *ovar, from Proto-Germanic *uber, from Proto-Indo-European *upér, from *upo. Compare German ober, English over.

Adverb

over

  1. over, above
  2. (postpositional) over (implying motion)
    Kijk uit, er steekt een hond de straat over.
    Look out, a dog is crossing over the street.
  3. remaining, left over
    Na het feest was er bijna geen eten meer over.
    After the party there was barely any food remaining.
  4. (in compounds) excessively, more than
  5. passing by, going away
    De pijn gaat weer over.
    The pain is going away again.

Antonyms

Derived terms

Preposition

over

  1. over
  2. about, concerning

Inflection

Derived terms

Anagrams


Latin

Verb

over

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of ovō

Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch over, from Proto-Germanic *uber.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɔːvər/

Preposition

ōver

  1. over, above
  2. across
  3. towards
  4. during
  5. ago, some duration in the past
  6. after, following (a duration)
  7. about, concerning
  8. due to, because of

Antonyms

Adverb

ōver

  1. over
  2. across, on the other side
  3. plenty, more than enough
  4. used up, finished
  5. once again

Descendants


Middle Low German

Pronunciation

  • Stem vowel: ō² or ȫ²
    • (originally) IPA(key): /ʊɒvər/, /ʏœvər/

Etymology

From Old Saxon ovar, from Proto-Germanic *uber, Proto-Germanic *ubiri.

Preposition

ōver or ȫver

  1. (accusative) across, moving through or over something
    over dat rode mêr - across the Red Sea
  2. (accusative) across, moving to the other side of something
  3. (accusative) in, across, describing the spread of something
    over alle lant - all across the lands / in every land
  4. (dative) across, situated on the other side of
    over deme watere - across the water
  5. (dative) while, over the duration of
    over deme werke begripen - while working on something
  6. (dative) over, at, on, on top of, describing where something is situated; does not mean above
    over deme dische - at the table

Usage notes

It is not clear whether the umlaut was connected with semantic differences.

Alternative forms

Antonyms

Adverb

ōver or ȫver

  1. across, on the other side
  2. while
  3. on top of, additionally
  4. over (finished, ceased)

Usage notes

It is not clear whether the umlaut was connected with semantic differences.

Alternative forms

Antonyms


Norwegian Bokmål

Preposition

over

  1. above
  2. past
  3. over; more than

Adverb

over

  1. over
  2. across

Derived terms


Norwegian Nynorsk

Preposition

over

  1. above
  2. past
  3. over; more than

Adverb

over

  1. over
  2. across

Derived terms