Definify.com

Webster 1913 Edition


In-

In-

(ĭn-)
.
[See
In
,
p
rep.
Cf.
Em-
,
En-
.]
A prefix from Eng. prep. in, also from Lat. prep. in, meaning
in
,
into
,
on
,
among
;
as,
in
bred,
in
born,
in
road; incline, inject, intrude
. In words from the Latin, in- regularly becomes il- before l, ir- before r, and im- before a labial;
as,
il
lusion,
ir
ruption,
im
blue,
im
migrate,
im
part
. In- is sometimes used with an simple intensive force.

In-

(ĭn-)
.
[L.
in
-; akin to E.
un
-. See
Un-
.]
An inseparable prefix, or particle, meaning
not
,
non
-,
un-
as, inactive, incapable, inapt. In- regularly becomes il- before l, ir- before r, and im- before a labial.

Definition 2022


in-

in-

See also: Appendix:Variations of "in"

English

Alternative forms

Prefix

in-

  1. Prefixed to certain words to give the senses of in, into, towards, within.
    inhold, intake, inthrill
    inborn, inbound
    infield, infighting, insight, intalk, inwork
Antonyms
Related terms
Translations

Etymology 2

Borrowing from Latin in-, from Latin in, from Proto-Indo-European *en (cognate to Germanic in-, above). Originally Latin word often passed via borrowing from French in- (e.g. incise, incite, incline, indication), or as French en-.

Prefix

in-

  1. in, into
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
Usage notes

In direction sense, used in Latinate terms, and opposed by ex-, e-, rather than Germanic out-; senses not always strict antonyms. Examples include infiltrate/exfiltrate, ingress/egress, invade/evade.

Antonyms
Related terms

Etymology 3

From Latin in- (not). Sometimes the Latin word has passed through French before reaching English (e.g. incapable, incertainty, inclement, incompatible). Compare un-.

Prefix

in-

  1. (non-productive) Used with certain words to reverse their meaning
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
    1. (non-productive) Added to adjectives to mean not
      inedible
      inaccurate
    2. (non-productive) Added to nouns to mean lacking or without
      incredulity
      ineptitude
Related terms
Translations

Related terms

See also


Catalan

Etymology

From Latin in-.

Prefix

in- (before l il-, before b, m, or p im-, before r ir-)

  1. in- ; un- (reversal of meaning or lack of an attribute)

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Catalan_words_prefixed_with_in-'>Catalan words prefixed with in-</a>

Dutch

Pronunciation

Prefix

in-

  1. from the adverb in
  2. prepended to a noun or adjective, it reinforces the quality signified thereby
  3. prepended to an adjective to negate its meaning; occurs mostly in borrowed terms from French: in-, un-
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Dutch_words_prefixed_with_in-'>Dutch words prefixed with in-</a>

French

Etymology

From Latin in-.

Prefix

in-

  1. in-; un- (indicates negation)

Irish

Alternative forms

Prefix

in-

  1. en-
  2. endo-
  3. intra-

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Irish_words_prefixed_with_in-'>Irish words prefixed with in-</a>

Italian

Alternative forms

  • im- (assimilated form before b-/m-/p-)
  • il- (assimilated form before l-)
  • ir- (assimilated form before r-)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /in/
  • IPA(key): [iɱ] (before f or v)

Etymology 1

From Latin in (in”, “into), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Prefix

in-

  1. (forms verbs) Used to denote derivation.
  2. (obsolete, rare) Used as an intensifier.
Usage notes
  • The prefix is used together with a verbal ending suffix to derive causative verbs from adjectives or nouns:
Examples:
in- + arido (dry”, “arid)inaridire (to parch”, “to dry up)
in- + fiamma (flame)infiammare (to enflame”, “to kindle)
  • When used with verbs, it's usually a reflection of derivation in Latin, and retains the original meaning of “into”, “inside”:
Example:
in- + fondereinfondere (to infuse”, “to instill) (cfr. Latin īnfundere)
  • In some cases, the meaning of “into” can also be found in verbs of modern derivation:
Example:
in- + carcere (jail”, “prison)incarcerare (to imprison”, “to incarcerate)

Etymology 2

From Latin in-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-, zero grade form of the sentence negative *ne.

Prefix

in-

  1. Used to denote negation or opposition or privation; un-; in-; a-
Usage notes
  • The suffix is usually found in adjectives (and nouns therefrom derived):
Examples:
in- + coerente (coherent”, “consistent)incoerente (incoherent”, “inconsistent)
in- + abile (able”, “capable)inabile (unable”, “incapable)
in- + felice (happy)infelice (unhappy)
in- + desiderabile (desirable; advisable)indesiderabile (undesirable, unwelcome)
  • More rarely, it is found in adjectives derived from nouns:
Example:
in- + colore (colour)incolore (uncoloured)

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Italian_words_prefixed_with_in-'>Italian words prefixed with in-</a>

Latin

Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *en-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (not), zero-grade form of the negative particle *ne (not). Akin to ne-, , .

Prefix

in-

  1. un-, non-, not
Usage notes

Affixed primarily to adjectives.

The spelling of the prefix changes in some situations:

  • Before b or p, it becomes im-.
    in- + barba (beard)imberbis (beardless)
    in- + patiēns (patient)impatiēns (impatient)
  • Before l, m, or r, it becomes il-, im-, or ir-, respectively.
    in- + labōrātus (worked, toilsome)illabōrātus (unworked, uncultivated)
    in- + mātūrus (mature)immātūrus (immature)
    in- + reverēns (reverent)irreverēns (irreverent)
  • Before gn and sometimes n, it becomes ig-.
    in- + gnārus (knowlegable)ignārus (ignorant)
    in- + nōmen (name)ignōminia (dishonor)
  • Before f or s, it becomes īn-.
    in- + fīnītus (finite)īnfīnītus (endless, infinite)
    in- + sānus (healthy, sane)īnsānus (mad, insane)
Derived terms
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Latin_words_prefixed_with_in-_(not)'>Latin words prefixed with in- (not)</a>
Descendants

Etymology 2

From the preposition in.

Prefix

in-

  1. in, inside
Usage notes

Affixed primarily to verbs.

For variants, see in- (not).

Derived terms
<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Latin_words_prefixed_with_in-_(in)'>Latin words prefixed with in- (in)</a>

References

  • in- in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 301

Old English

Etymology 1

From in (in). More at in

Prefix

in-

  1. in, into; on, upon
    in- + blāwan (to blow; to breathe)inblāwan (to inspire, breathe upon)
    inēodan (to enter)
    inēþung (inspiration)
  2. internal, positioned on the inside, inside
    in- + coþu (disease, sickness)incoþu (internal disease)
    indryhten (distinguished, noble, courtly, excellent), from indryhtu (honor, glory, nobility)
Descendants

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *in- (strong, adj), from Proto-Indo-European *indʰro- (swelling; strong), from *oyd- (to swell).

Prefix

in-

  1. (intensifying) very
    in- + frōd (wise)infrōd (very old, experienced, wise)

Old Irish

Etymology 1

From Proto-Celtic *eni-. Prefix form of i.

Alternative forms

Prefix

in-

  1. in

Derived terms

<a class='CategoryTreeLabel CategoryTreeLabelNs14 CategoryTreeLabelCategory' href='/wiki/Category:Old_Irish_words_prefixed_with_in-'>Old Irish words prefixed with in-</a>

Usage notes

Very frequently replaced by ad- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

  • ad·cota from *in-com-tá-
  • ad·fét from *in-fét-
  • ad·greinn from *in-grenn-
  • ad·snádi from *in-snádi-

Sometimes replaced by as- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

  • as·dloing from *in-dlong-

References

  • Rudolf Thurneysen, A Grammar of Old Irish (Dublin, 1946), pp. 518–22

Etymology 2

Prefix

in- (class C infixed pronoun)

  1. Alternative form of id-

Portuguese

Alternative forms

  • im- (before P or B)
  • ir- (before R)

Prefix

in-

  1. un-; not

Spanish

Etymology

From Latin in-

Prefix

in-

  1. not (negation)

Zulu

Prefix

in- (full noun prefix, basic form n-)

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes

The form in- is used in most cases, but im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (m, b or p).

See also