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Webster 1913 Edition


Gall

Gall

(ga̤l)
,
Noun.
[OE.
galle
,
gal
, AS.
gealla
; akin to D.
gal
, OS. & OHG.
galla
, Icel.
gall
, SW.
galla
, Dan.
galde
, L.
fel
, Gr. [GREEK], and prob. to E.
yellow
. √49. See
Yellow
, and cf.
Choler
]
1.
(Physiol.)
The bitter, alkaline, viscid fluid found in the gall bladder, beneath the liver. It consists of the secretion of the liver, or bile, mixed with that of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder.
2.
The gall bladder.
3.
Anything extremely bitter; bitterness; rancor.
He hath . . . compassed me with
gall
and travail.
Lam. iii. 5.
Comedy diverted without
gall
.
Dryden.
4.
Impudence; brazen assurance.
[Slang]
Gall bladder
(Anat.)
,
the membranous sac, in which the bile, or gall, is stored up, as secreted by the liver; the cholecystis. See Illust. of Digestive apparatus.
Gall duct
,
a duct which conveys bile, as the cystic duct, or the hepatic duct.
Gall sickness
,
a remitting bilious fever in the Netherlands.
Dunglison.
Gall of the earth
(Bot.)
,
an herbaceous composite plant with variously lobed and cleft leaves, usually the
Prenanthes serpentaria
.

Gall

(ga̤l)
,
Noun.
[F.
galle
, noix de
galle
, fr. L.
galla
.]
(Zool.)
An excrescence of any form produced on any part of a plant by insects or their larvae. They are most commonly caused by small Hymenoptera and Diptera which puncture the bark and lay their eggs in the wounds. The larvae live within the galls. Some galls are due to aphids, mites, etc. See
Gallnut
.
☞ The galls, or gallnuts, of commerce are produced by insects of the genus
Cynips
, chiefly on an oak (
Quercus infectoria
syn.
Quercus Lusitanica
) of Western Asia and Southern Europe. They contain much tannin, and are used in the manufacture of that article and for making ink and a black dye, as well as in medicine.
Gall insect
(Zool.)
,
any insect that produces galls.
Gall midge
(Zool.)
,
any small dipterous insect that produces galls.
Gall oak
,
the oak (
Quercus infectoria
) which yields the galls of commerce.
Gall of glass
,
the neutral salt skimmed off from the surface of melted crown glass;- called also
glass gall
and
sandiver
.
Ure.
Gall wasp
.
(Zool.)
See
Gallfly
.

Gall

,
Verb.
T.
(Dyeing)
To impregnate with a decoction of gallnuts.
Ure.

Gall

,
Verb.
T.
[
imp. & p. p.
Galled
(ga̤ld)
;
p. pr. & vb. n.
Galling
.]
[OE.
gallen
; cf. F.
galer
to scratch, rub,
gale
scurf, scab, G.
galle
a disease in horses’ feet, an excrescence under the tongue of horses; of uncertain origin. Cf.
Gall
gallnut.]
1.
To fret and wear away by friction; to hurt or break the skin of by rubbing; to chafe; to injure the surface of by attrition;
as, a saddle
galls
the back of a horse; to
gall
a mast or a cable.
I am loth to
gall
a new-healed wound.
Shakespeare
2.
To fret; to vex;
as, to be
galled
by sarcasm
.
They that are most
galled
with my folly,
They most must laugh.
Shakespeare
3.
To injure; to harass; to annoy;
as, the troops were
galled
by the shot of the enemy
.
In our wars against the French of old, we used to
gall
them with our longbows, at a greater distance than they could shoot their arrows.
Addison.

Gall

,
Verb.
I.
To scoff; to jeer.
[R.]
Shak.

Gall

,
Noun.
A wound in the skin made by rubbing.

Webster 1828 Edition


Gall

GALL

,
Noun.
[Gr. probably from its color.]
1.
In the animal economy, the bile, a bitter, a yellowish green fluid, secreted in the glandular substance of the liver. It is glutinous or imperfectly fluid, like oil.
2.
Any thing extremely bitter.
3.
Rancor; malignity.
4.
Anger; bitterness of mind.

Definition 2021


Gall

Gall

See also: gall and gäll

English

Proper noun

Gall (plural Galls)

  1. A surname.

Breton

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɡalː/

Noun

Gall m

  1. (archaic) foreigner
  2. (dated) Gaul, Gaulish person
  3. Gallo-speaker
  4. Frenchman, Romance-speaking person not from Lower Brittany

Derived terms

Related terms


Irish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɡɑːl̪ˠ/

Noun

Gall m (genitive singular Gaill, nominative plural Gaill)

  1. (historical) Gaul (person from Gaul)
  2. (historical) Northman, Dane (member of the Germanic tribe inhabiting the Danish islands and parts of southern Sweden)
  3. (historical) Norman (member of the mixed Scandinavian and Frankish peoples who, in the 11th century, were a major military power in Western Europe and who conquered the English in 1066), Anglo-Norman (descendant of the Normans who settled in England after the Norman Conquest), Englishman

Declension

Derived terms

  • Dún na nGall (Donegal)
  • Fine Gall (Fingal)
  • Gall-Rómhánach (Gallo-Roman)
  • Inse Ghall (the Hebrides)

Related terms


Scottish Gaelic

Etymology

From Old Irish gall (foreigner), from Latin Gallus (a Gaul), from a native Celtic name, the Gauls being the first strangers to visit or be visited by the Irish in Pre-Roman and Roman times. Compare Proto-Celtic *gallos (whence Welsh gal (enemy, foe)).

Alternative forms

Noun

Gall m (genitive singular Goill, plural Goill)

  1. foreigner, alien
  2. Lowlander (Scottish Lowlands)

Synonyms

Derived terms

gall

gall

See also: gäll and Gall

English

Noun

gall (countable and uncountable, plural galls)

  1. (anatomy, obsolete, uncountable) Bile, especially that of an animal; the greenish, profoundly bitter-tasting fluid found in bile ducts and gall bladders, structures associated with the liver.
  2. (anatomy) The gall bladder.
    • 1611, Bible (KJV), Job 20:24–25:
      He shall flee from the iron weapon and the bow of steel shall strike him through. It is drawn and cometh out of the body; yea, the glittering sword cometh out of his gall.
  3. (uncountable, obsolete) Great misery or physical suffering, likened to the bitterest-tasting of substances.
    • 1611, Bible (KJV), Deuteronomy 29:18:
      Lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood;
    • Dryden
      The stage its ancient fury thus let fall, / And comedy diverted without gall.
  4. (Can we clean up(+) this sense?) (countable) A bump-like imperfection resembling a gall.
    • 1653, Izaak Walton, The Compleat Angler, Chapter 21
      But first for your Line. First note, that you are to take care that your hair be round and clear, and free from galls, or scabs, or frets: for a well- chosen, even, clear, round hair, of a kind of glass-colour, will prove as strong as three uneven scabby hairs that are ill-chosen, and full of galls or unevenness. You shall seldom find a black hair but it is round, but many white are flat and uneven; therefore, if you get a lock of right, round, clear, glass-colour hair, make much of it.
  5. (uncountable) A feeling of exasperation.
  6. (uncountable) Impudence or brazenness; temerity, chutzpah.
    • 1917, Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Oakdale Affair, Chapter 6
      “Durn ye!” he cried. “I’ll lam ye! Get offen here. I knows ye. Yer one o’ that gang o’ bums that come here last night, an’ now you got the gall to come back beggin’ for food, eh? I’ll lam ye!” and he raised the gun to his shoulder.
  7. (medicine, obsolete, countable) A sore or open wound caused by chafing, which may become infected, as with a blister.
    • 1892, Walt Whitman, “Song of Myself”, Leaves of Grass
      And remember perfectly well his revolving eyes and his awkwardness, / And remember putting plasters on the galls of his neck and ankles;
  8. (countable) A sore on a horse caused by an ill-fitted or ill-adjusted saddle; a saddle sore.
  9. (countable) A pit on a surface being cut caused by the friction between the two surfaces exceeding the bond of the material at a point.
Derived terms
Translations

Verb

gall (third-person singular simple present galls, present participle galling, simple past and past participle galled)

  1. (transitive) To trouble or bother.
    • 1883, Robert Louis Stevenson, Treasure Island, Part Five, Chapter 27
      I went below, and did what I could for my wound; it pained me a good deal, and still bled freely; but it was neither deep nor dangerous, nor did it greatly gall me when I used my arm.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 15, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      Edward Churchill still attended to his work in a hopeless mechanical manner like a sleep-walker who walks safely on a well-known round. But his Roman collar galled him, his cossack stifled him, his biretta was as uncomfortable as a merry-andrew's cap and bells.
  2. To harass, to harry, often with the intent to cause injury.
    • June 24, 1778, George Washington, The Writings of George Washington From the Original Manuscript Sources: Volume 12, 1745–1799
      The disposition for these detachments is as follows – Morgans corps, to gain the enemy’s right flank; Maxwells brigade to hang on their left. Brigadier Genl. Scott is now marching with a very respectable detachment destined to gall the enemys left flank and rear.
  3. To chafe, to rub or subject to friction; to create a sore on the skin.
    • 1719, Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
      …he went awkwardly in these clothes at first: wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but a little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and using himself to them, he took to them at length very well.
  4. To exasperate.
    • 1979, Mark Bowden, “Captivity Pageant”, The Atlantic, Volume 296, No. 5, pp. 92-97, December, 1979
      Metrinko was hungry, but he was galled by how self-congratulatory his captors seemed, how generous and noble and proudly Islamic.
  5. To cause pitting on a surface being cut from the friction between the two surfaces exceeding the bond of the material at a point.
    Improper cooling and a dull milling blade on titanium can gall the surface.
  6. To scoff; to jeer.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Shakespeare to this entry?)
Translations

Etymology 2

Borrowing from French galle, from Latin galla (oak-apple).

Galls on a dried leaf.

Noun

gall (plural galls)

  1. (countable, phytopathology) A blister or tumor-like growth found on the surface of plants, caused by burrowing of insect larvae into the living tissues, especially that of the common oak gall wasp Cynips quercusfolii.
    • 1974, Philip P. Wiener (ed.), Dictionary of the History of Ideas
      Even so, Redi retained a belief that in certain other cases—the origin of parasites inside the human or animal body or of grubs inside of oak galls—there must be spontaneous generation. Bit by bit the evidence grew against such views. In 1670 Jan Swammerdam, painstaking student of the insect’s life cycle, suggested that the grubs in galls were enclosed in them for the sake of nourishment and must come from insects that had inserted their semen or their eggs into the plants.
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations

Verb

gall (third-person singular simple present galls, present participle galling, simple past and past participle galled)

  1. To impregnate with a decoction of gallnuts in dyeing.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Ure to this entry?)

See also

Gall (disambiguation) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia


Catalan

Etymology

From Latin gallus.

Noun

gall m (plural galls)

  1. rooster, cock

See also


Hungarian

Pronunciation

  • Hyphenation: gall

Adjective

gall (not comparable)

  1. Gallic (of or pertaining to Gaul, its people or language)

Noun

gall (plural gallok)

  1. Gaul (person)
  2. (singular only) Gaul (language)

Related terms


Icelandic

Verb

gall (strong)

  1. first-person singular past indicative of gjalla
  2. third-person singular past indicative of gjalla

Irish

Pronunciation

Noun

gall m (genitive singular gaill, nominative plural gaill)

  1. foreigner
  2. (pejorative) Anglified Irish person

Declension

Derived terms

  • camán gall (chervil)

Related terms

Mutation

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
gall ghall ngall
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References


Scottish Gaelic

Noun

gall m (genitive singular goill, plural goill)

  1. Alternative letter-case form of Gall

Welsh

Alternative forms

  • geill (literary, third-person singular present/future)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɡaɬ/[1]

Verb

gall

  1. third-person singular present / future of gallu
  2. (literary, rare) second-person singular imperative of gallu

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
gall all ngall unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References

  1. J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 51 v.