Definify.com

Webster 1913 Edition


Bitter

Bit′ter

,
Noun.
[See
Bitts
.]
(Naut.)
AA turn of the cable which is round the bitts.
Bitter end
,
that part of a cable which is abaft the bitts, and so within board, when the ship rides at anchor.

Bit′ter

,
Adj.
[AS.
biter
; akin to Goth.
baitrs
, Icel.
bitr
, Dan., Sw., D., & G.
bitter
, OS.
bittar
, fr. root of E.
bite
. See
Bite
,
Verb.
T.
]
1.
Having a peculiar, acrid, biting taste, like that of wormwood or an infusion of hops;
as, a
bitter
medicine;
bitter
as aloes
.
2.
Causing pain or smart; piercing; painful; sharp; severe;
as, a
bitter
cold day
.
3.
Causing, or fitted to cause, pain or distress to the mind; calamitous; poignant.
It is an evil thing and
bitter
, that thou hast forsaken the Lord thy God.
Jer. ii. 19.
4.
Characterized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty; harsh; stern; virulent;
as,
bitter
reproach
.
Husbands, love your wives, and be not
bitter
against them.
Col. iii. 19.
5.
Mournful; sad; distressing; painful; pitiable.
The Egyptians . . . made their lives
bitter
with hard bondage.
Ex. i. 14.
Bitter apple
,
Bitter cucumber
,
Bitter gourd
.
(Bot.)
See
Colocynth
.
Bitter cress
(Bot.)
,
a plant of the genus
Cardamine
, esp.
Cardamine amara
.
Bitter earth
(Min.)
,
tale earth; calcined magnesia.
Bitter principles
(Chem.)
,
a class of substances, extracted from vegetable products, having strong bitter taste but with no sharply defined chemical characteristics.
Bitter salt
,
Epsom salts; magnesium sulphate.
Bitter vetch
(Bot.)
,
a name given to two European leguminous herbs,
Vicia Orobus
and
Ervum Ervilia
.
To the bitter end
,
to the last extremity, however calamitous.
Syn. – Acrid; sharp; harsh; pungent; stinging; cutting; severe; acrimonious.

Bit′ter

,
Noun.
Any substance that is bitter. See
Bitters
.

Bit′ter

,
Verb.
T.
To make bitter.
Wolcott.

Webster 1828 Edition


Bitter

BIT'TER

, a.
1.
Sharp, or biting to the taste; acrid; like wormwood.
2.
Sharp; cruel; severe; as bitter enmity. Heb.1.
3.
Sharp, as words, reproachful; sarcastic.
4.
Sharp to the feeling; piercing; painful; that makes to smart; as a bitter cold day, or a bitter blast.
5.
Painful to the mind; calamitous; poignant; as a bitter fate.
6.
Afflicted; distressed.
The Egyptians made their lives bitter. Ex.1.
7.
Hurtful; very sinful.
Is is an evil and bitter thing. Jer.2.
8.
Mournful; distressing; expressive of misory; as a bitter complaint or lamentation. Job.23. Jer.6.31.

BIT'TER

,
Noun.
A substance that is bitter. [See Bitter.]

BIT'TER

,
Noun.
[See Bitts.] In marine language, a turn of the cable which is round the bitts.
Bitter-end, that part of a cable which is abaft the bitts, and therefore within board, when the ship rides at anchor.

Definition 2021


bitter

bitter

English

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterer or more bitter, superlative bitterest or most bitter)

  1. Having an acrid taste (usually from a basic substance).
    The coffee tasted bitter.
    • 1907, Robert W[illiam] Chambers, “chapter III”, in The Younger Set (Project Gutenberg; EBook #14852), New York, N.Y.: A. L. Burt Company, published 1 February 2005 (Project Gutenberg version), OCLC 4241346:
      Long after his cigar burnt bitter, he sat with eyes fixed on the blaze. When the flames at last began to flicker and subside, his lids fluttered, then drooped; but he had lost all reckoning of time when he opened them again to find Miss Erroll in furs and ball-gown kneeling on the hearth [].
  2. Harsh, piercing or stinging.
    A bitter wind blew from the north.
    • 1999, Neil Gaiman, Stardust, p.31 (Perennial paperback edition)
      It was at the end of February, [] when the world was cold, and a bitter wind howled down the moors [].
  3. Hateful or hostile.
    They're bitter enemies.
    • Bible, Colossians iii. 19
      Husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter against them.
  4. Cynical and resentful.
    I've been bitter ever since that defeat.

Usage notes

  • The one-word comparative form bitterer and superlative form bitterest exist, but are less common than their two-word counterparts more bitter and most bitter.

Derived terms

See also

Antonyms

Synonyms

  • (cynical and resentful): jaded

Translations

Noun

bitter (plural bitters)

  1. (usually in the plural bitters) A liquid or powder, made from bitter herbs, used in mixed drinks or as a tonic.
    • 1773, Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer
      Thus I begin: "All is not gold that glitters,
      "Pleasure seems sweet, but proves a glass of bitters.
  2. A type of beer heavily flavored with hops.
  3. (nautical) A turn of a cable about the bitts.

Derived terms

  • brought up to a bitter

Translations

Verb

bitter (third-person singular simple present bitters, present participle bittering, simple past and past participle bittered)

  1. To make bitter.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Wolcott to this entry?)

Danish

Etymology 1

Borrowing from Middle Low German bitter.

Adjective

bitter

  1. bitter (all meanings)
Inflection
Inflection of bitter
Positive Comparative Superlative
Common singular bitter bitrere bitrest2
Neuter singular bittert bitrere bitrest2
Plural bitre bitrere bitrest2
Definite attributive1 bitre bitrere bitreste
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.
Related terms
  • bitterhed
  • forbitret

Noun

bitter c (singular definite bitteren, plural indefinite bittere)

  1. bitter (the liquid used in drinks)
  2. A bitter form of an aquavit
Inflection

Etymology 2

Borrowing from English bitter.

Noun

bitter c

  1. bitter (type of beer - only known generally in Denmark for a few years)

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɪtər/

Etymology

From Middle Dutch bitter, from Old Dutch *bittar, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, German bitter, West Frisian bitter, English bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterder, superlative bitterst)

  1. bitter (having an acrid taste)

Inflection

Inflection of bitter
uninflected bitter
inflected bittere
comparative bitterder
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial bitter bitterder het bitterst
het bitterste
indefinite m./f. sing. bittere bitterdere bitterste
n. sing. bitter bitterder bitterste
plural bittere bitterdere bitterste
definite bittere bitterdere bitterste
partitive bitters bitterders

Related terms

See also

  • (tastes) smaak; bitter, zoet, zout, zuur (Category: nl:Taste)

French

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): bite

Verb

bitter

  1. (transitive, slang) to understand, usually used in negative form and especially with rien.
    J’ai rien bitté au cours.
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Conjugation

Synonyms


German

Etymology

From Old High German bittar, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, Dutch bitter, English bitter, Swedish bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɪ.tɐ/

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterer, superlative am bittersten)

  1. bitter

Declension

Derived terms

Adverb

bitter

  1. bitterly

Synonyms


Italian

Noun

bitter m (invariable)

  1. bitters

Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɪtːər/

Adjective

bitter

  1. bitter (taste)
  2. sad, painful

Descendants


Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective

bitter (neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrere, indefinite superlative bitrest, definite superlative bitreste)

  1. bitter

Derived terms

References


Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective

bitter (neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrare, indefinite superlative bitrast, definite superlative bitraste)

  1. bitter

References


Old English

Adjective

bitter

  1. Alternative form of biter

Old High German

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbit.ter/

Adjective

bitter

  1. Alternative form of bittar

References

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse bitr (partly through the influence of Middle Low German bitter), from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation

Adjective

bitter (comparative bittrare, superlative bittrast)

  1. bitter; having an acrid taste
  2. bitter; hateful
  3. bitter; resentful

Declension

Inflection of bitter
Indefinite/attributive Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular bitter bittrare bittrast
Neuter singular bittert bittrare bittrast
Plural bittra bittrare bittrast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 bittre bittrare bittraste
All bittra bittrare bittraste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in an attributive role.