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Definition 2022


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Translingual

Han character

(radical 140 +4, 10 strokes, cangjie input 廿戈弓人 (TINO), four-corner 44307, composition)

  1. sesame
  2. a purplish or brown mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) used in traditional Asian medicine and believed to have miraculous powers
  3. 'a divine and felicitous plant' (Karlgren)

References

  • KangXi: page 1019, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30699
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1477, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3176, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+829D

Chinese

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tjɯ
*tjɯ
*tjɯs
*tjɯs
*tjɯs
*tjɯs
*tʰjɯ
*tʰjɯ
*tʰjɯ
*tʰjɯ
*djɯ
*diʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tjɯ) : semantic  (grass) + phonetic  (OC *tjɯ) – a type of plant.

Pronunciation



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (23)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕɨ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕɨ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕie/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cɨ/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕiə/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭə/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhī
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17189
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjɯ/

Definitions

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds

  • 三芝
  • 劉蘭芝刘兰芝
  • 張芝张芝
  • 得挹芝眉
  • 焚芝
  • 焚芝鋤蕙焚芝锄蕙
  • 王仙芝
  • 紫芝
  • 紫芝眉宇
  • 肉芝
  • 芝儀芝仪
  • 芝加哥 (Zhījiāgē)
  • 芝宇
  • 芝標芝标
  • 芝焚蕙嘆芝焚蕙叹
  • 芝田
  • 芝眉
  • 芝艾俱焚
  • 芝草無根芝草无根
  • 芝蘭芝兰
  • 芝蘭之化芝兰之化
  • 芝蘭之室芝兰之室
  • 芝蘭氣味芝兰气味
  • 芝蘭玉樹芝兰玉树
  • 芝顏芝颜
  • 芝麻 (zhīma)
  • 芝麻官
  • 芝麻小事
  • 芝麻油 (zhīmayóu)
  • 芝麻秸
  • 芝麻糊 (zhīmahù)
  • 芝麻綠豆芝麻绿豆
  • 芝麻醬芝麻酱
  • 鄭芝龍郑芝龙
  • 野芝麻
  • 雲芝云芝
  • 靈芝灵芝 (língzhī)
  • 龍芝茶龙芝茶

Japanese

Kanji

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. turf, lawn, grass

Readings

Etymology 1

: common grass, especially as found in lawns.

From Old Japanese. One of the oldest attested words in the Japanese language, used in the Man'yōshū and Nihon Shoki.

This character usually means a type of fungus in Chinese. However, it was also used phonetically in 芝麻 (*chimæ, sesame) (modern Mandarin 芝麻 (zhīmá)), and it seems that the Japanese use of this character for the sense of grass may have come from this sesame sense in Chinese.

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana しば, romaji shiba)

  1. grass, turf
    付乃 御宇良佐伎奈流 根都古具佐 安比見受安良婆 安礼古非米夜母。[2]
     (しば) (つき)の 御宇良崎 (みうらさき)なる ねつこ (ぐさ) 相見 (あひみ)ずあらば  () ()ひめやも。
    Shibatsukino miurasakinaru netsukogusa ahimizuaraba arekohimeyamo.
    The anemone flowers on grassy Miura Point; if we hadn't seen each other, I probably wouldn't be so in love.
  2. short for 芝見 (shibami): hiding in the grass and spying on one's enemies or scouting out the situation; a spy in the grass
Derived terms

Proper noun

(hiragana しば, romaji Shiba)

  1. A surname.

Verb

する (hiragana しばする, romaji shiba suru)

  1. short for 芝見 (shibami): to hide in the grass and spy on one's enemies or scout out the situation
Conjugation

Etymology 2

Compound of (shi, adjectival ending) + (sama, kind, type).[3]The sama changes to zama as an instance of rendaku (連濁). The kanji was used as an ateji, probably based on its on'yomi of shi.

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana しざま, romaji shizama)

  1. (grammar, obsolete)shi-type”, referring to the i adjective in Japanese grammar, specifically the ク活用 (ku katsuyō, ku inflection), corresponding to modern Japanese adjectives ending in -i but not -shii
    This is the nomenclature used in the grammar devised by 富士谷成章 (Fujitani Nariakira), a classical Japanese scholar and grammarian in the middle Edo period. Modern i adjectives still had the 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal form) ending in -shi in the mid-Edo period, hence Fujitani's description of these as the “shi-type” of adjective.

Etymology 3

From Middle Chinese (*chi). Compare modern Mandarin (zhī).

Pronunciation

Affix

(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. the 万年茸 (mannentake) mushroom
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Used as ateji in various surnames.

References

  1. 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3508);
  3. 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean

Hanja

(ji) (hangeul , revised ji, McCune-Reischauer chi, Yale ci)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

Han character

(chi, liện, liên)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.