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Definition 2022


See also:

Translingual

Stroke order

Alternative forms

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)
  • (sometimes when used as a bottom Chinese radical, like )

Han character

(radical 61 心+0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 心 (P), four-corner 33000)

  1. Kangxi radical #61, (heart).

Usage notes

When written as a bottom radical, it is similar to but is distinguished by the second stroke from the left being longer, passing under the third stroke – this is an important composition detail.

Derived characters

  • Index:Chinese radical/心

References

  • KangXi: page 375, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10295
  • Dae Jaweon: page 700, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2267, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5FC3

Chinese

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯms
*sʰlɯms
*slɯm
*slɯm
*slɯmʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a heart, now highly stylized.

Pronunciation



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕin⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕin²¹/
Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /siə̃²¹³/
Zhengzhou /sin²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiẽ²¹/
Xining /ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕĩ/
Nanjing /sin³¹/
Hefei /ɕin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕin³³/
Wenzhou /saŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /sin¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sin³³/
Xiangtan /sin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sim⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sim²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐm⁵³/
Nanning /ɬɐm⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐm⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sim⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sim³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tim²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/sim/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sim/
Li
Rong
/siəm/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xīn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sim ›
Old
Chinese
/*səm/
English heart

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13801
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*slɯm/

Definitions

  1. heart   (Classifier: m)
  2. mind
  3. thought; idea
  4. intention
  5. center; core

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic ():

Japanese

Kanji

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Phrases

  • 心頭滅却すれば火もまた涼し

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
こころ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

/ko2ko2ro2/: *[kəkərə] > [kokoro]. Cognate with Okinawan くくる (kukuru).

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana こころ, romaji kokoro)

  1. mind, heart, spirit, soul; thoughts, ideas
  2. attention, mind, interest
  3. heart, feelings, emotion, emotional state
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3466)
      麻可奈思美 奴礼婆許登尓豆 佐祢奈敝波 己許呂乃緒呂尓 能里弖可奈思母
  4. wholeheartedness, sincerity, true heart
  5. sympathy, heart, consideration, generous disposition
  6. meaning, essence; answer (as to a riddle)

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
うら
Grade: 2
Irregular

Cognate with (ura, inside).

Pronunciation

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [ɯᵝɾ̠a̠]

Noun

(hiragana うら, romaji ura)

  1. inner feelings; heart

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: 2
on'yomi

Pronunciation

Noun

(hiragana しん, romaji shin)

  1. heart, mind, core; spirit, vitality; inner strength, marrow
  2. core (as of a fruit); wick; lead (as of a pencil); padding
Compounds

References

  1. 1 2 3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 1 2 3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  • Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 3: Man’yōshū 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 978-4-00-240003-7, published 2002.

Korean

Hanja

(sim)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: sim, McCune-Reischauer: sim, Yale: sim)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds


Vietnamese

Han character

(tâm, tấm, tim)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.