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Webster 1913 Edition


Under

Un′der

(ŭn′dẽr)
,
p
rep.
[AS.
under
, prep. & adv.; akin to OFries.
under
, OS.
undar
, D.
onder
, G.
unter
, OHG.
untar
, Icel.
undir
, Sw. & Dan.
under
, Goth.
undar
, L.
infra
below,
inferior
lower, Skr.
adhas
below. √201. Cf.
Inferior
.]
1.
Below or lower, in place or position, with the idea of being covered; lower than; beneath; – opposed to
over
;
as, he stood
under
a tree; the carriage is
under
cover; a cellar extends
under
the whole house.
Fruit put in bottles, and the bottles let down into wells
under
water, will keep long.
Bacon.
Be gathered now, ye waters
under
heaven,
Into one place.
Milton.
2.
Hence, in many figurative uses which may be classified as follows; –
(a)
Denoting relation to some thing or person that is superior, weighs upon, oppresses, bows down, governs, directs, influences powerfully, or the like, in a relation of subjection, subordination, obligation, liability, or the like; as, to travel under a heavy load; to live under extreme oppression; to have fortitude under the evils of life; to have patience under pain, or under misfortunes; to behave like a Christian under reproaches and injuries; under the pains and penalties of the law; the condition under which one enters upon an office; under the necessity of obeying the laws; under vows of chastity.
Both Jews and Gentiles . . . are all
under
sin.
Rom. iii. 9.
That led the embattled seraphim to war
Under
thy conduct.
Milton.
Who have their provand
Only for bearing burdens, and sore blows
For sinking
under
them.
Shakespeare
(b)
Denoting relation to something that exceeds in rank or degree, in number, size, weight, age, or the like; in a relation of the less to the greater, of inferiority, or of falling short.
Three sons he dying left
under
age.
Spenser.
Medicines take effect sometimes
under
, and sometimes above, the natural proportion of their virtue.
Hooker.
There are several hundred parishes in England
under
twenty pounds a year.
Swift.
It was too great an honor for any man
under
a duke.
Addison.
☞ Hence, it sometimes means at, with, or for, less than; as, he would not sell the horse under sixty dollars.
Several young men could never leave the pulpit
under
half a dozen conceits.
Swift.
(c)
Denoting relation to something that comprehends or includes, that represents or designates, that furnishes a cover, pretext, pretense, or the like;
as, he betrayed him
under
the guise of friendship; Morpheus is represented
under
the figure of a boy asleep
.
A crew who,
under
names of old renown . . . abused
Fanatic Egypt.
Milton.
Mr. Duke may be mentioned
under
the double capacity of a poet and a divine.
Felton.
Under
this head may come in the several contests and wars betwixt popes and the secular princes.
C. Leslie.
(d)
Less specifically, denoting the relation of being subject, of undergoing regard, treatment, or the like;
as, a bill
under
discussion
.
Abject and lost, lay these, covering the flood,
Under
amazement of their hideous change.
Milton.
Under arms
.
(Mil.)
(a)
Drawn up fully armed and equipped.
(b)
Enrolled for military service;
as, the state has a million men
under arms
.
Under canvas
.
(a)
(Naut.)
Moved or propelled by sails; – said of any vessel with her sail set, but especially of a steamer using her sails only, as distinguished from one under steam. Under steam and canvas signifies that a vessel is using both means of propulsion.
(b)
(Mil.)
Provided with, or sheltered in, tents.
Under fire
,
exposed to an enemy’s fire; taking part in a battle or general engagement.
Under foot
.
See under
Foot
,
Noun.
Under ground
,
below the surface of the ground.
Under one's signature
,
with one's signature or name subscribed; attested or confirmed by one's signature. Cf. the second Note under
Over
,
p
rep.
Under sail
.
(Naut.)
(a)
With anchor up, and under the influence of sails; moved by sails; in motion.
(b)
With sails set, though the anchor is down.
(c)
Same as
Under canvas
(a)
, above.
Totten.
Under sentence
,
having had one's sentence pronounced.
Under the breath
,
Under one's breath
,
with low voice; very softly.
Under the lee
(Naut.)
,
to the leeward;
as,
under the lee
of the land
.
Under the gun
.
Under psychological pressure, such as the need to meet a pressing deadline; feeling pressured
Under water
,
below the surface of the water.
Under way
, or
Under weigh
(Naut.)
,
in a condition to make progress; having started.

Un′der

(ŭn′dẽr)
,
adv.
In a lower, subject, or subordinate condition; in subjection; – used chiefly in a few idiomatic phrases;
as, to
bring under
, to reduce to subjection; to subdue; to
keep under
, to keep in subjection; to control;
to go under
, to be unsuccessful; to fail; to go bankrupt
.
I keep
under
my body, and bring it into subjection.
1 Cor. ix. 27.
The minstrel fell, but the foeman's chain
Could not bring his proud soul
under
.
Moore.
Under is often used in composition with a verb to indicate lowness or inferiority in position or degree, in the act named by the verb; as, to underline; to undermine; to underprop.

Un′der

,
Adj.
Lower in position, intensity, rank, or degree; subject; subordinate; – generally in composition with a noun, and written with or without the hyphen;
as, an
under
current;
under
tone;
under
dose;
under
-garment;
under
officer;
under
sheriff
.
Under covert
(Zool.)
,
one of the feathers situated beneath the bases of the quills in the wings and tail of a bird. See Illust. under
Bird
.

Webster 1828 Edition


Under

UNDER

, prep.
1.
Beneath; below; so as to have something over or above. He stood under a tree; the carriage is under cover. We may see things under water; we have a cellar under the whole house.
2.
In a state of pupilage or subjection; as a youth under a tutor; a ward under a guardian; colonies under the British government.
I also am a man under authority, having soldiers under me. Matt. 8.
3.
In a less degree than. The effect of medicine is sometimes under and sometimes above or over its natural strength.
4.
For less than. He would not sell the horse under forty pounds.
5.
Less than; below. There are parishes in England under forty pounds a year.
6.
With the pretense of; with the cover or pretext of. He does this under the name of love. This argument is not to be evaded under some plausible distinction.
7.
With less than.
Several young men could never leave the pulpit under half a dozen conceits.
8.
In a degree, state or rank inferior to.
It was too great an honor for any man under a duke.
9.
In a state of being loaded; in a state of bearing or being burdened; as, to travel under a heavy load; to live under extreme oppression.
10.
In a state of oppression or subjection to, the state in which a person is considered as bearing or having any thing laid upon him; as, to have fortitude under the evils of life; to have patience under pain, or under misfortunes; to behave like a christian under reproaches and injuries.
11.
In a state of liability or obligation. No man shall trespass but under the pains and penalties of the law. Attend to the conditions under which you enter upon your office. We are under the necessity of obeying the laws. Nuns are under vows of chastity. We all lie under the curse of the law, until redeemed by Christ.
12.
In the state of bearing and being known by; as men trading under the firm of Wright & Co.
13.
In the state of; in the enjoyment or possession of. We live under the gospel dispensation.
14.
During the time of. The American revolution commenced under the administration of lord North.
15.
Not having reached or arrived to; below. He left three sons under age.
16.
Represented by; in the form of. Morpheus is represented under the figure of a boy asleep. [But morph, in Ethiopic, signifies cessation, rest.]
17.
In the state of protection or defense. Under favor of the prince, our author was promoted. The enemy landed under cover of their batteries.
18.
As bearing a particular character.
The duke may be mentioned under the double capacity of a poet and a divine.
19.
Being contained or comprehended in.
Under this head may be mentioned the contests between the popes and the secular princes.
20.
Attested by; signed by. Here is a deed under his hand and seal.
He has left us evidence under his own hand.
21.
In a state of being handled, treated or discussed, or of being the subject of. The bill is now under discussion. We shall have the subject under consideration next week.
22.
In subordination to. Under God, this is our only safety.
23.
In subjection or bondage to; ruled or influenced by; in a moral sense; within the dominion of.
They are all under sin. Rom. 3.
Under a signature, bearing, as a name or title.
Under way, in seamen's language, moving; in a condition to make progress.
To keep under, to hold in subjection or control; to restrain.
I keep under my body. 1Cor. 9.

Definition 2021


under

under

See also: ûnder and under-

English

Preposition

under (1)

under

  1. In or at a lower level than.
    • 1922, Virginia Woolf, Jacob's Room Chapter 1
      The little boys in the front bedroom had thrown off their blankets and lay under the sheets.
    • 1963, Margery Allingham, chapter 14, in The China Governess:
      Nanny Broome was looking up at the outer wall.  Just under the ceiling there were three lunette windows, heavily barred and blacked out in the normal way by centuries of grime.
    • 2013 June 29, High and wet”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8842, page 28:
      Floods in northern India, mostly in the small state of Uttarakhand, have wrought disaster on an enormous scale. [] Rock-filled torrents smashed vehicles and homes, burying victims under rubble and sludge.
  2. As a subject of; subordinate to.
    • 2012 May 5, Phil McNulty, “Chelsea 2-1 Liverpool”, in BBC Sport:
      He was then denied by a magnificent tackle from captain Terry as Liverpool continued to press - but Chelsea survived as the memories of the nightmare under Villas-Boas faded even further into the background.
    • 2011 December 14, Angelique Chrisafis, “Rachida Dati accuses French PM of sexism and elitism”, in Guardian:
      Dati launched a blistering attack on the prime minister, François Fillon, under whom she served as justice minister, accusing him of sexism, elitism, arrogance and hindering the political advancement of ethnic minorities.
    He served in World War II under General Omar Bradley.
  3. Less than.
  4. Below the surface of.
  5. (figuratively) In the face of; in response to (some attacking force).
    • 2011, Tom Fordyce, Rugby World Cup 2011: England 12-19 France
      England's World Cup dreams fell apart under a French onslaught on a night when their shortcomings were brutally exposed at the quarter-final stage.
    to collapse under stress; to give in under interrogation
  6. As, in the character of.
    • 2013, The Huffington Post, JK Rowling Pseudonym: Robert Galbraith's 'The Cuckoo's Calling' Is Actually By Harry Potter Author
      J.K. Rowling has written a crime novel called 'The Cuckoo's Calling' under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith.
    he writes books under the name John Smith

Synonyms

Antonyms

Translations

Adverb

under (not comparable)

  1. In a way lower or less than.
    • (Can we add an example for this sense?)
  2. In a way inferior to.
    • (Can we add an example for this sense?)
  3. (informal) In an unconscious state.
    It took the hypnotist several minutes to make his subject go under.

Synonyms

Antonyms

Translations

Adjective

under (comparative more under, superlative most under)

  1. Being lower; being beneath something.
    • Bible, 1 Corinthians ix. 27
      I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection.
    • Moore
      The minstrel fell, but the foeman's chain / Could not bring his proud soul under.
    • 1835, J G. Peters, A treatise on equitation, or the art of horsemanship, page 179:
      The advantages he gains are of double security to him ; first, by the support of his haunches, being at all times more under than before, he learns to be more active with his hind-quarters
    • 1908, Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, The American golfer, volume 1-2, page 10:
      If you allow the right hand to turn under more than the left, a pull will result, and if the left is more under than the right, a sliced ball will surely follow.
    • 2009, Doris Lessing, Briefing for a Descent Into ****, page 30:
      The waves are so steep, they crash so fast and furious I'm more under than up.

Derived terms

References

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The vertical axis", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Statistics

Most common English words before 1923: life · went · back · #133: under · same · take · last

Anagrams


Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onər/, [ɔnˀɐ]

Adverb

under

  1. under

Preposition

under

  1. under
  2. underneath
  3. below
  4. during

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wen- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onər/, [ɔnˀɐ]

Noun

under n (singular definite underet, plural indefinite undere)

  1. wonder
  2. marvel
  3. miracle
Inflection

Etymology 3

Short form of any compound with the preposition under.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /onər/, [ɔnɐ]

Noun

under c (singular definite underen, plural indefinite undere)

  1. bottom (part)
Inflection

Latin

Verb

under

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of undō

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Preposition

under

  1. below; beneath
  2. during
  3. under

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wen- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

Noun

under n (definite singular underet or undret, indefinite plural under or undere or undre, definite plural undera or underne or undra or undrene)

  1. wonder, marvel, miracle
Derived terms

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology 1

From Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Preposition

under

  1. below; beneath
  2. during

Etymology 2

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wen- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

Noun

under n (definite singular underet, indefinite plural under, definite plural undera)

  1. wonder, marvel, miracle
Derived terms

References


Old English

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *under. Compare Old Saxon undar, Old High German untar.

Preposition

under

  1. under

Descendants


Old Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą.

Noun

under n

  1. wonder, miracle
  2. wonderment, awe, marvel

Declension

Descendants


Swedish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Old Swedish undir, from Old Norse undir, from Proto-Germanic *under.

Preposition

under

  1. under; below; beneath
  2. during, at the same time as
    Under lektionen pratade de hela tiden
    During the lesson, they talked all the time

Etymology 2

From Old Swedish under, from Old Norse undr, from Proto-Germanic *wundrą, from Proto-Indo-European *wen- (to wish for, desire, strive for, win, love).

Noun

under n

  1. wonder, miracle
    Undrens tid är inte förbi.
    The age of miracles isn't over.
Declension
Inflection of under 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative under undret under undren
Genitive unders undrets unders undrens
Related terms

See also