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Webster 1913 Edition


Oil

Oil

(oil)
,
Noun.
[OE.
oile
, OF.
oile
, F.
huile
, fr. L.
oleum
; akin to Gr. [GREEK]. Cf.
Olive
.]
Any one of a great variety of unctuous combustible substances, more viscous than and not miscible with water;
as, olive
oil
, whale
oil
, rock
oil
, etc.
They are of animal, vegetable, or mineral origin and of varied composition, and they are variously used for food, for solvents, for anointing, lubrication, illumination, etc. By extension, any substance of an oily consistency;
as,
oil
of vitriol
.
☞ The mineral oils are varieties of petroleum. See
Petroleum
. The vegetable oils are of two classes,
essential oils
(see under
Essential
), and
natural oils
which in general resemble the animal oils and fats. Most of the natural oils and the animal oils and fats consist of ethereal salts of glycerin, with a large number of organic acids, principally stearic, oleic, and palmitic, forming respectively stearin, olein, and palmitin. Stearin and palmitin prevail in the solid oils and fats, and olein in the liquid oils. Mutton tallow, beef tallow, and lard are rich in stearin, human fat and palm oil in palmitin, and sperm and cod-liver oils in olein. In making soaps, the acids leave the glycerin and unite with the soda or potash.
Animal oil
,
Bone oil
,
Dipple’s oil
,
etc.
(Old Chem.)
, a complex oil obtained by the distillation of animal substances, as bones. See
Bone oil
, under
Bone
.
Drying oils
,
Essential oils
.
(Chem.)
See under
Drying
, and
Essential
.
Ethereal oil of wine
,
Heavy oil of wine
.
(Chem.)
See under
Ethereal
.
Fixed oil
.
(Chem.)
See under
Fixed
.
Oil bag
(Zool.)
,
a bag, cyst, or gland in animals, containing oil.
Oil beetle
(Zool.)
,
any beetle of the genus
Meloe
and allied genera. When disturbed they emit from the joints of the legs a yellowish oily liquor. Some species possess vesicating properties, and are used instead of cantharides.
Oil box
, or
Oil cellar
(Mach.)
,
a fixed box or reservoir, for lubricating a bearing; esp., the box for oil beneath the journal of a railway-car axle.
Oil cake
.
See under
Cake
.
Oil cock
,
a stopcock connected with an oil cup. See
Oil cup
.
Oil color
.
(a)
A paint made by grinding a coloring substance in oil.
(b)
Such paints, taken in a general sense.
(b)
a painting made from such a paint.
Oil cup
,
a cup, or small receptacle, connected with a bearing as a lubricator, and usually provided with a wick, wire, or adjustable valve for regulating the delivery of oil.
Oil engine
,
a gas engine worked with the explosive vapor of petroleum.
Oil gas
,
inflammable gas procured from oil, and used for lighting streets, houses, etc.
Oil gland
.
(a)
(Zool.)
A gland which secretes oil; especially in birds, the large gland at the base of the tail.
(b)
(Bot.)
A gland, in some plants, producing oil.
Oil green
,
a pale yellowish green, like oil.
Oil of brick
,
empyreumatic oil obtained by subjecting a brick soaked in oil to distillation at a high temperature, – used by lapidaries as a vehicle for the emery by which stones and gems are sawn or cut.
Brande & C.
Oil of talc
,
a nostrum made of calcined talc, and famous in the 17th century as a cosmetic.
[Obs.]
B. Jonson.
Oil of vitriol
(Chem.)
,
strong sulphuric acid; – so called from its oily consistency and from its forming the vitriols or sulphates.
Oil of wine
,
Œnanthic ether. See under
Œnanthic
.
Oil painting
.
(a)
The art of painting in oil colors.
(b)
Any kind of painting of which the pigments are originally ground in oil.
Oil palm
(Bot.)
,
a palm tree whose fruit furnishes oil, esp.
Elaeis Guineensis
. See
Elaeis
.
Oil sardine
(Zool.)
,
an East Indian herring (
Clupea scombrina
), valued for its oil.
Oil shark
(Zool.)
(a)
The liver shark.
(b)
The tope.
Oil still
,
a still for hydrocarbons, esp. for petroleum.
Oil test
,
a test for determining the temperature at which petroleum oils give off vapor which is liable to explode.
Oil tree
.
(Bot.)
(a)
A plant of the genus
Ricinus
(
Ricinus communis
), from the seeds of which castor oil is obtained.
(b)
An Indian tree, the mahwa. See
Mahwa
.
(c)
The oil palm.
To burn the midnight oil
,
to study or work late at night.
Volatle oils
.
See
Essential oils
, under
Essential
.

Oil

,
Verb.
T.
[
imp. & p. p.
Oiled
;
p. pr. & vb. n.
Oiling
.]
To smear or rub over with oil; to lubricate with oil; to anoint with oil.

Webster 1828 Edition


Oil

OIL

,
Noun.
It seems to be named from its inflammability, for aelan, is to kindle, and to oil; hence anaelan, to anneal; aeled, fire. L. oleum; Gr.]
An unctuous substance expressed or drawn from several animal and vegetable substances. The distinctive characters of oil are inflammability, fluidity, and insolubility in water. Oils are fixed or fat, and volatile or essential. They have a smooth feel, and most of them have little taste or smell. Animal oil is found in all animal substances. Vegetable oils are produced by expression, infusion or distillation.

OIL

,
Verb.
T.
To smear or rub over with oil; to lubricate with oil; to anoint with oil.

Definition 2022


oil

oil

See also: óil, òil, oïl, and -oil

English

Alternative forms

  • oyl (obsolete)

Noun

oil (countable and uncountable, plural oils)

  1. Liquid fat.
  2. Petroleum-based liquid used as fuel or lubricant.
    • 2013 August 3, Yesterday’s fuel”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8847:
      The dawn of the oil age was fairly recent. Although the stuff was used to waterproof boats in the Middle East 6,000 years ago, extracting it in earnest began only in 1859 after an oil strike in Pennsylvania. The first barrels of crude fetched $18 (around $450 at today’s prices). It was used to make kerosene, the main fuel for artificial lighting after overfishing led to a shortage of whale blubber.
  3. An oil painting.
    • 1973, John Ulric Nef, Search for meaning: the autobiography of a nonconformist (page 89)
      Yet, in another way, I was unable to put Picasso's oils in the same class as Cezanne's, or even (which will no doubt shock many readers) as Renoir's.

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

oil (third-person singular simple present oils, present participle oiling, simple past and past participle oiled)

  1. (transitive) To lubricate with oil.
    • 1900, L. Frank Baum, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Chapter 23:
      Before they went to see Glinda, however, they were taken to a room of the Castle, where Dorothy washed her face and combed her hair, and the Lion shook the dust out of his mane, and the Scarecrow patted himself into his best shape, and the Woodman polished his tin and oiled his joints.
    • 1963, Margery Allingham, chapter 17, in The China Governess:
      The face which emerged was not reassuring.  [] . He was not a mongol but there was a deficiency of a sort there, and it was not made more pretty by a latter-day hair cut which involved eccentrically long elf-locks and oiled black curls.
  2. (transitive) To grease with oil for cooking.

Derived terms

Translations

Anagrams


Irish

Etymology 1

From Old Irish ail, oil (disgrace, reproach; act of reproaching; blemish, defect).

Noun

oil f (genitive singular oile)

  1. (literary) disgrace, reproach; act of reproaching
  2. (literary) blemish, defect
Declension

Etymology 2

From Old Irish ailid, oilid (nourishes, rears, fosters) (compare altram (fosterage), from a verbal noun of ailid).

Verb

oil (present analytic oileann, future analytic oilfidh, verbal noun oiliúint, past participle oilte)

  1. (transitive) nourish, rear, foster
    Proverb: Gach dalta mar a oiltear. ― Every fosterling as it is reared.
  2. (transitive) train, educate
    lámh oiltepractised hand
Conjugation

Etymology 3

Noun

oil f (genitive singular oileach, nominative plural oileacha)

  1. Alternative form of ail (stone, rock)
Declension

Verb

oil (present analytic oileann, future analytic oilfidh, verbal noun oiliúint, past participle oilte)

  1. (intransitive) Alternative form of oir (suit, fit, become)
Conjugation

Mutation

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
oil n-oil hoil t-oil
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References


Old French

Etymology 1

A contraction of o il, from Vulgar Latin *hoc ille (thus he...),[1] or perhaps rather hoc illud est, an elliptical phrase of response, by semantic erosion.

Cognate to Old Provençal oc (Occitan òc), where the connection to Latin hoc is clearer.

Alternative forms

  • oïl (almost always used by scholars to disambiguate with other meanings)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /o.il/

Adverb

oil

  1. yes

Interjection

oil

  1. yes

Descendants

  • French: oui
  • Norman: oui (Guernsey)

References

  1. Languages Within Language, by Ivan Fonagy, page 66

Etymology 2

See ueil.

Noun

oil m (oblique plural ouz or oilz, nominative singular ouz or oilz, nominative plural oil)

  1. Alternative form of ueil

Simeulue

Noun

oil

  1. water
  2. sap

References

  • Blust's Austronesian Comparative Dictionary