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Webster 1913 Edition


Proof

Proof

,
Noun.
[OF.
prove
,
proeve
, F.
preuve
, fr. L.
proba
, fr.
probare
to prove. See
Prove
.]
1.
Any effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth; an act of testing; a test; a trial.
For whatsoever mother wit or art
Could work, he put in
proof
.
Spenser.
You shall have many
proofs
to show your skill.
Ford.
Formerly, a very rude mode of ascertaining the strength of spirits was practiced, called the
proof
.
Ure.
2.
That degree of evidence which convinces the mind of any truth or fact, and produces belief; a test by facts or arguments that induce, or tend to induce, certainty of the judgment; conclusive evidence; demonstration.
I’ll have some
proof
.
Shakespeare
It is no
proof
of a man's understanding to be able to confirm whatever he pleases.
Emerson.
☞ Properly speaking, proof is the effect or result of evidence, evidence is the medium of proof. Cf.
Demonstration
, 1.
3.
The quality or state of having been proved or tried; firmness or hardness that resists impression, or does not yield to force; impenetrability of physical bodies.
4.
Firmness of mind; stability not to be shaken.
5.
(Print.)
A trial impression, as from type, taken for correction or examination; – called also
proof sheet
.
6.
(Math.)
A process for testing the accuracy of an operation performed. Cf.
Prove
,
Verb.
T.
, 5.
7.
Armor of excellent or tried quality, and deemed impenetrable; properly, armor of proof.
[Obs.]
Shak.
Artist's proof
,
a very early proof impression of an engraving, or the like; – often distinguished by the artist's signature.
Proof reader
,
one who reads, and marks correction in, proofs. See def. 5, above.
Syn. – Testimony; evidence; reason; argument; trial; demonstration. See
Testimony
.

Proof

,
Adj.
1.
Used in proving or testing;
as, a
proof
load, or
proof
charge
.
2.
Firm or successful in resisting;
as,
proof
against harm; water
proof
; bomb
proof
.
I . . . have found thee
Proof
against all temptation.
Milton.
This was a good, stout
proof
article of faith.
Burke.
3.
Being of a certain standard as to strength; – said of alcoholic liquors.
Proof charge
(Firearms)
,
a charge of powder and ball, greater than the service charge, fired in an arm, as a gun or cannon, to test its strength.
Proof impression
.
See under
Impression
.
Proof load
(Engin.)
,
the greatest load than can be applied to a piece, as a beam, column, etc., without straining the piece beyond the elastic limit.
Proof sheet
.
See
Proof
,
Noun.
, 5.
Proof spirit
(Chem.)
,
a strong distilled liquor, or mixture of alcohol and water, containing not less than a standard amount of alcohol. In the United States “proof spirit is defined by law to be that mixture of alcohol and water which contains one half of its volume of alcohol, the alcohol when at a temperature of 60° Fahrenheit being of specific gravity 0.7939 referred to water at its maximum density as unity. Proof spirit has at 60° Fahrenheit a specific gravity of 0.93353, 100 parts by volume of the same consisting of 50 parts of absolute alcohol and 53.71 parts of water,” the apparent excess of water being due to contraction of the liquids on mixture. In England proof spirit is defined by Act 58, George III., to be such as shall at a temperature of 51° Fahrenheit weigh exactly the 12⁄13 part of an equal measure of distilled water. This contains 49.3 per cent by weight, or 57.09 by volume, of alcohol. Stronger spirits, as those of about 60, 70, and 80 per cent of alcohol, are sometimes called second, third, and fourth proof spirits respectively.
Proof staff
,
a straight-edge used by millers to test the flatness of a stone.
Proof stick
(Sugar Manuf.)
,
a rod in the side of a vacuum pan, for testing the consistency of the sirup.
Proof text
,
a passage of Scripture used to prove a doctrine.

Webster 1828 Edition


Proof

PROOF

,n.
1.
Trial; essay; experiment; any effort, process or operation that ascertains truth or fact. Thus the quality of spirit is ascertained by proof; the strength of gun-powder, of fire arms and of cannon is determined by proof; the correctness of operations in arithmetic is ascertained by proof.
2.
In law and logic, that degree of evidence which convinces the mind of the certainty of truth of fact, and produces belief. Proof is derived from personal knowledge, or from the testimony of others, or from conclusive reasoning. Proof differs from demonstration, which is applicable only to those truths of which the contrary is inconceivable.
This has neither evidence of truth, nor proof sufficient to give it warrant.
3.
Firmness or hardness that resists impression, or yields not to force; impenetrability of physical bodies; as a wall that is of proof against shot.
See arms of proof.
4.
Firmness of mind; stability not to be shaken; as a mind or virtue that is proof against the arts of seduction and the assaults of temptation.
5.
The proof of spirits consists in little bubbles which appear on the top of the liquor after agitation, called the bead, and by the French, chapelet. Hence,
6.
The degree of strength in spirit; as high proof; first proof; second, third or fourth proof.
7.
In printing and engraving, a rough impression of a sheet, taken for correction; plu.proofs, not proves.
8.
Armor sufficiently firm to resist impression. [Not used.]
Proof is used elliptically for of proof.
I have found thee
Proof against all temptation.
It is sometimes followed by to, more generally by against.

Definition 2022


proof

proof

See also: -proof, prof, and Prof.

English

Noun

proof (countable and uncountable, plural proofs)

  1. (countable) An effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth; an act of testing; a test; a trial.
    • 1591, Edmund Spenser, Prosopopoia: or, Mother Hubbard's Tale, later also published in William Michael Rossetti, Humorous Poems,
      But the false Fox most kindly played his part,
      For whatsoever mother-wit or art
      Could work he put in proof. No practice sly,
      No counterpoint of cunning policy,
      No reach, no breach, that might him profit bring.
      But he the same did to his purpose wring.
    • c. 1633, John Ford, Love's Sacrifice, Act 1, Scene 1,
      France I more praise and love; you are, my lord,
      Yourself for horsemanship much famed; and there
      You shall have many proofs to shew your skill.
    • 1831, Thomas Thomson, A System of Chemistry of Inorganic Bodies, Volume 2,
      A given quantity of the spirits was poured upon a quantity of gunpowder in a dish and set on fire. If at the end of the combustion, the gunpowder continued dry enough, it took fire and exploded; but if it had been wetted by the water in the spirits, the flame of the alcohol went out without setting the powder on fire. This was called the proof.
  2. (uncountable) The degree of evidence which convinces the mind of any truth or fact, and produces belief; a test by facts or arguments which induce, or tend to induce, certainty of the judgment; conclusive evidence; demonstration.
  3. The quality or state of having been proved or tried; firmness or hardness which resists impression, or doesn't yield to force; impenetrability of physical bodies.
  4. (obsolete) Experience of something.
    • 1590, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, III.1:
      But the chaste damzell, that had never priefe / Of such malengine and fine forgerye, / Did easely beleeve her strong extremitye.
  5. (uncountable, obsolete) Firmness of mind; stability not to be shaken.
  6. (countable, printing) A proof sheet; a trial impression, as from type, taken for correction or examination.
  7. (countable, logic, mathematics) A sequence of statements consisting of axioms, assumptions, statements already demonstrated in another proof, and statements that logically follow from previous statements in the sequence, and which concludes with a statement that is the object of the proof.
  8. (countable, mathematics) A process for testing the accuracy of an operation performed. Compare prove, transitive verb, 5.
  9. (obsolete) Armour of excellent or tried quality, and deemed impenetrable; properly, armour of proof.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Shakespeare to this entry?)
  10. (US) A measure of the alcohol content of liquor. Originally, in Britain, 100 proof was defined as 57.1% by volume (not used anymore). In the US, 100 proof means that the alcohol content is 50% of the total volume of the liquid, and thus, absolute alcohol would be 200 proof.

Hyponyms

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

Adjective

proof (comparative more proof, superlative most proof)

  1. Used in proving or testing.
    a proof load; a proof charge
  2. Firm or successful in resisting.
    proof against harm
    waterproof; bombproof.
    • 1671, John Milton, Paradise Regained, 1820, Dr Aiken (biographies), Select Works of the British Poets, page 125,
      And opportunity I here have had / To try thee, sift thee, and confess have found thee / Proof against all temptation as a rock / Of adamant, and, as a centre, firm :
    • 1790, Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1803, The Works of The Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Volume 5, page426,
      This was a good, ſtout proof article of faith, pronounced under an anathema, by the venerable fathers of this philoſophick ſynod.
  3. (of alcoholic liquors) Being of a certain standard as to alcohol content.

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

proof (third-person singular simple present proofs, present participle proofing, simple past and past participle proofed)

  1. (transitive, intransitive, colloquial) To proofread.
  2. (transitive) To make resistant, especially to water.
  3. (transitive, cooking) To allow to rise (of yeast-containing dough).
  4. (transitive, cooking) To test the activeness of (yeast).