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Definition 2022


U+3093, ん
HIRAGANA LETTER N

[U+3092]
Hiragana
[U+3094]

Japanese

Stroke order

Syllable

(romaji n)

  1. The hiragana syllable (n). Its equivalent in katakana is (n). It is the forty-eighth syllable in the gojūon order.
See also

Etymology 2

/nu//n/, /ŋ/

An abbreviation of the negative ending (nu).

Suffix

(romaji -n)

  1. (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb): negative form of verbs
    • あるといえばあるが、しかし、ほんとうのことはわから
      Aru to ieba aru ga, shikashi, hontō no koto wa wakaran.
      There is, to be sure, but, I don't know the facts.
Usage notes

The negative usage of (-n) is a colloquial form of (nu), and this is mainly used in western Japanese dialects. Since ない is adopted as a standard form for the negative suffix in modern Japanese, gives a dialectal or very casual impression compared to ない today. On the other hand, is common in fictional dialogue attributed to archaic or pompous characters.

Synonyms

Etymology 3

/mu//n/, /ŋ/

An abbreviation of the intentional, volitional, and suppositional ending (mu).

Suffix

(romaji -n)

  1. (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb): volitional form of verbs
    • 高級食器 (こうきゅうしょっき)美器 (びき)をつくらとするものは、美食 (びしょく) (つう)ずべし。
      Kōkyū shokki, biki o tsukuran to suru mono wa, bishoku ni tsūzu beshi.
      He who tries to make high-class tableware and beauty ware, must be familiar with epicurism.
Usage notes

The volitional usage of (-n) is a colloquial form of (mu), and this is usually used to impart a literary style in modern Japanese.

In modern Japanese, this is more commonly realized as the or -yō volitional verb ending, derived by abbreviation of the /m/:

  • For type 1 or godan verbs: /-amu//-au//-ɔː//-oː/
  • For type 2 or 3 ichidan verbs with stems ending in /-i/: /-Cimu//-Ciu//-Cʲoː//-Cijoː/
  • For type 2 or 3 ichidan verbs with stems ending in /-e/: /-Cemu//-Ceu//-Cʲoː//-Cejoː/
/C/ above indicates the last consonant in the verb stem, such as the /m/ in /mi/, the verb stem for 見る (miru, to see), or the /b/ in /tabe/, the verb stem for 食べる (taberu, to eat).